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1974 – Disaster Relief Act of 1974 – The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 authorized the president of the United States to implement a program of disaster preparedness and relief aid that would enable the use of all federal agencies. The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 states that any federal assistance offered is dependent upon the president authorizing such aid in the form of issuing a declaration.

1979 – FEMA is created.

1988 – Stafford Act – Part of the reason for the change from the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 to the Stafford Act was the fact that the federal government was concerned about expanding disaster declarations beyond only natural disasters, and this included other types of incidents such as technological disasters (Three Mile Island in PA) and other instances outside the scope of natural disasters. Terrorism is not yet included. Federal assistance could be requested by the state on behalf of either the local government or state government. However, the request from the state must come from the governor.

2002 – Homeland Security Act – The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks resulted in the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). FEMA is now included under the umbrella of DHS.

HSPD-5 established the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the National Response Plan (NRP).

HSPD-8 established policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal, establishing mechanisms for improved delivery of Federal preparedness assistance to State and local governments and outlining actions to strengthen preparedness capabilities of Federal, State, and local entities.

2005 – Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act – the performance of FEMA and other emergency management agencies during Hurricane Katrina results in the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (PKEMRA) of 2006. The act enhances FEMA’s responsibilities and its autonomy within DHS. Significant and meaningful changes to FEMA were made to increase preparedness levels of the general population and aid in mitigation and resilience efforts. These changes also included incident management assistance teams, pre-positioning of resources, expedited federal services, and including considerations for individuals with special needs.

2012 – Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013 – Hurricane Sandy was the first major test for FEMA after Hurricane Katrina prompted the changes seen in the PKEMRA. SRIA changes the way that FEMA can deliver federal disaster assistance to survivors. Further improvements to disaster assistance are included in the Disaster Recovery Reform Act of 2018.

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As outlined in the research objectives the aim of this research is to create an optimised asset management system. However, a lot of definitions for the term asset management are used around the world (Lloyd 2010). The definition in this research will be “the coordinated activity of an organization to realize value from assets” (British Standards Institution 2014a p14). This definition of the British Standards Institution is chosen because Westland Infra is certified for ISO55001 standard. The British Standards Institution (2014a p13) describes an asset as “item, thing or entity that has potential or actual value to an organization” in which “value can either be tangible or intangible, financial or non-financial and includes consideration of risks and liabilities”. The description of an asset management system according to the British Standards Institution (2014a p4) is “a set of interrelated and interacting elements of an organization, whose function is to establish the asset management policy and asset management objectives, and the processes needed to achieve those objectives”. In the ISO55000 standard the benefits for an asset management system are described. The benefits of asset management can include improved asset performances and financial performance (British Standards Institution 2014a). However the implementation of an asset management system doesn’t automatically mean that these benefits will be achieved. Results of 17 international case studies on asset management show that not all implementations were successful right away. Important lessons that can be learned are that asset management should not only been seen as a function or a department. It should be a strategic approach, as benefits can only be fully realised when asset management is seen as collectively coordinated activities (Lloyd 2014). It should be noted however that these case studies were all based on anecdotal evidence and not on scientific evidence. Schippers and Dik (2013), both member of a consultancy organisation, have draw>

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