Individual differences and prejudice
complete the Right-wing Authoritarianism Scale (https://www.panojohnson.com/automatons/rwa-scale.xhtml (Links to an external site.))
OR the measure of Social Dominance Orientation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_dominance_orientation#SDO_Scale (Links to an external site.),
you need to calculate the score manually though, note the reverse itemsas you believe famous people might (if possible, choose people who are likely to hold extremely different attitudes, such as Rush Limbaugh versus Jon Stewart). Then, discuss the reasons for your choices and relate them to the research on those two measures described in the text.
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW AND DISCUSSION
1. Explain authoritarianislll as conceptualized by Adorno and his colleagues
(1950) and by Altemeyer (1981). In what ways are those conceptualizations
similar and in what ways do they differ?
2. Describe the characteristics of people high in right-wing authoritarianism
(R W A) that may predispose them to prejudice. How are these characteristics
related to the ones described in Chapter 4 that are associated with a
propensity for stereotyping?
3. Explain the role authority figures play in shaping the prejudices of people
high in RWA.
4. What is social dominance orientation (SDO)? In what ways is it similar to R WA
and it what ways does it differ from R W A?
5. Describe the characteristics of people high in SDO that may predispose them
to prejudice. How are these characteristics related to the ones described in
Chapter 4 that are associated with a propensity for stereotyping?
6. Explain the concept of legitimizing myths as it is used in social dominance
7. Think back to Chapter 6. Do any of the theories of contemporary prejudice
postulate that people use what social dominance theory calls legitimizing
myths to justifY their prejudices? If so, what are those myths?
8. Explain the distinction between self-esteem enhancement and self-esteem
protection as motives for prejudice. How are these motives related to the
ones described in Chapter 4 that are associated with a propensity for
9. What are the two hypotheses that can be derived from the self-enhancement
view of the role self-esteem plays in prejudice? What has research on these
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND PREJUDICE 275
hypotheses found? What explanations have been offered to account for these
10. What has research on the relationship between self-esteem protection
mDtives and prejudice found?
11. What are values? Describe the value orientations that have been studied in
relation to prejudice. How is each related to prejudice? What processes have
linked each value orientation to prejudice?
12. Explain how the perception of value dissimilarity can lead to prejudice.
What individual difference variables are related to this process?
13. Describe the terror management theory explanation for the role played by
perceived value dissimilarity in prejudice.
14. Describe the attribution-value explanation for the role played by perceived
value dissimilarity in prejudice. How are perceptions of a group’s naturalness
and entitativity related to this process?
15. What are social ideologies? In what ways do religion and political
orientation fit the definition of an ideology? In what ways do they not fit
16. Allport (1954) wrote that religion “makes prejudice and it unmakes
prejudice” (p. 444). What did he mean by that? What light has subsequent
research shed on his statement?
17, Describe the relationship of religious involvement to prejudice. Why were
religious leaders and psychology of religion researchers displeased by these
findings? What new approach did researchers take?
18, Explain the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation, In
theory, how should each be related to prejudice? What has research shown
about how each is related to prejudice?
19, Debate the following proposition: Intrinsically religious people are no less
prejudiced than anyone else; they are just lllore motivated to give socially
desirable responses to questions about prejudice,
20. Explain the concept of quest as a religious orientation, How is it related
21. What is meant by proscribed and permitted prejudices? We used racial
prejudice as an example of a proscribed prejudice and anti-gay attitudes
as an example of a pemutted prejudice, What other examples can you
think of for each category? Is the concept of proscribed versus permitted
prejudices unique to the religious context or does it apply to society in
22, Describe how each of the three religious orientations is related to proscribed
and permitted prejudices.
23, Define religious fundamentalisnl, How is it related to prejudice? What seem
to be its major psychological components? How might each of these
components contribute to fundamentalism’s relationship to prejudice?
276 CHAPTER 7
24. Allport (1954) wrote that “piety may … be a convenient mask for prejudices
whicb … have nothing to do with religion” (p. 447). What did he mean?
25. Researchers generally find a positive correlation between political
conservatism and prejudice. What explanations have been offered to
account for that relationship?
26. Describe the relationship between political liberalism and prejudice.
27. Researchers generally find a positive correlation between political
conservatism and attitudes toward social policies, such as affirmative
action, that are intended to increase intergroup equality. What explanations
have been offered to account for that relationship? Which explanation do
you think is best supported by the research evidence? Explain the reasons
for your answer.
28. Debate the following proposition: Political conservatism may be a
convenient mask for prejudices that have nothing to do with politics.
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