# We can work on Confounding and how it can affect a study’s conclusion.

Define confounding and state how confounding can affect a studyâs conclusion. What is meant by Simpsonâs paradox and how does it pertain to confounding? How do epidemiologic researchers control for confounding?
Suppose as an epidemiologist you are responsible for measuring study participantsâ blood pressure. Some dropped the instrument and the needle on the gauge has been bent so that the readings are too high. What type of error is this? What type of error would occur if the instrument is working properly but only one person took only measurement from each person? How could you minimize each of the foregoing types of error?
Consider the following scenario to answer questions c through h: The death rate per 100,000 for lung cancer is 7 among nonsmokers and 71 among smokers. The death rate per 100,000 for coronary thrombosis is 422 among nonsmokers and 599 among smokers. The prevalence of smoking in the population is 55% (If necessary, refer to the chapter 9 on cohort studies for formulas for relative risk (RR) Be sure to show the formulas for your work as well as your calculations. Present your final results and their interpretation in a table format.

What is the RR of dying of lung cancer for smokers versus nonsmokers?
What is the RR of dying of coronary thrombosis for smokers versus nonsmokers?
What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with lung cancer?
What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with coronary thrombosis?
What is the population etiologic fraction of lung cancer due to smoking?
What is the population etiologic fraction of coronary thrombosis due to smoking?

Sample Solution

Vengeance Vengeance After the last trial of Win Chun, I gradually entered the vehicle. I didn’t hope to grin myself. I train for a long time when I and my brilliant monsters stop to exist. I never thought of doing this. All the hyper-extended arms and hyper-extended lower leg that I applied to myself merit the stunt. I pulled out the key, thumped the controller, I heard wheezing halted alarm. I opened the boots of Citroen Xsara and tenderly got a trophy in it. “At the point when you start a retribution venture, first burrow two graves, one for your foes and the other for yourself.” Receiving vengeance through retribution Not just will individuals be pulverized, yet in addition vengers will be fought back for retribution. – The layout of Hamlet’s vengeance has been rehashed again and again and as a perplexing society, we perceive the idea of individuals and retribution on numerous great abstract works. From the beginning of time, the idea of vengeance annihilated the entire network, populace and human progress in general. The issue with men and vengeance is that there is the likelihood that individuals are clashing with one another regarding why he or who is fighting back. The subject of Shake Spear’s ‘Hamlet’ additionally has this thought detailed. “Vengeance is sweet” and “Ravenge is the best virus dish” are two proclamations regularly used to clarify retribution, yet in English writing the possibility of ??revenge prompts misfortune; the truth of the matter is in Frankenstein, Hamlet It is clear in the tale of Beowulf. In every story, the unique character needs retribution. Retribution is a more grounded feeling than affection, loaded with contempt, outrage, and misfortune. – Beowulf’s vengeance is an epic, and in particular, let the peruser think about the past for quite a while; the most significant worth is the time of fortitude and trustworthiness. The main factor that can give individuals a notoriety for showers is courage and family parentage. The agnostic legend Beowulf’s model shows his craving to gather distinction and riches; the main route is to vindicate others’ passing Vengeance: Revenge is the center of warrior culture portrayed by Beowulf. Specifically, vengeance is generally done through purported “contempt of blood”. It incorporates warriors who battle their family members, masters or lords who executed them. In verse we can see retribution from numerous points of view. For instance, Grendel’s mom revived his child’s passing by assaulting Heorot, and the monster started to frenzy in reprisal to take his fortune (and Beowulf battled against the winged serpent to fight back) . Subsequently, it is comprehended that vengeance is a significant component of society clarified in this sonnet, and people retribution on the individuals who reprove them.>