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Five Dysfunctions of a Team Essay

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Five Dysfunctions of a Team Essay

The Five Dysfunctions of Teams:

  • Absence of Trust
  • Fear of Conflict
  • Lack of Commitment
  • Avoidance of Accountability
  • Inattention to Results

Stages of Team Development:

Forming -> Storming -> Norming -> Performing -> Adjourning

Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development.


MARS = Motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors.

The most researched and respected clustering of personality traits is the five-factor (Big Five) model (FFM). These “Big Five” are represented by CANOE.

Conscientiousness = Characterizes people who are organized, dependable, goal-focused, thorough, disciplined, methodical, and industrious.

Agreeableness = Describes people who are trusting, helpful, good-natured, considerate, tolerant, selfless, generous, and flexible.

Neuroticism = Refers to people who tend to be anxious, insecure, self-conscious, depressed and temperamental.

Openness to experience = Characterizes people who are imaginative, creative, unconventional, curious, nonconforming, autonomous, and aesthetically perceptive.

Extraversion = Describes people who are outgoing, talkative, energetic, sociable, and assertive. The opposite of introversion, which applies to those who are quiet, cautious, and less interactive with others.

An individual’s self-concept can be described by three characteristics: complexity, consistency, and clarity.

The main objective of the Johari Window is to increase the size of the open area so that both you and your colleagues are aware of your perceptual limitations.

Four-drive theory includes four fundamental drives identified from earlier psychological, sociological, and anthropological research. These drives are:

– Drive to acquire. This is the drive to seek out, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences.

– Drive to bond. This drive is a variation of the need for belonging and affiliation described by Maslow and McClelland. It explains why our self-concept is partly defined by associations with social groups.

– Drive to comprehend. This is similar to Maslow’s primary need to know. People are inherently curious and need to make sense of their environment and themselves. 

– Drive to defend. This is the drive to protect ourselves physically, psychologically, and socially. Probably the first drive to develop, it creates a fight-or-flight response in the face of threat to our physical safety, our possessions, our self-concepts, our values, and the well-being of others.

– Employee motivation is influenced by all three components of the expectancy theory model. If any component weakens, motivation weakens.

– E-to-P expectancy = This is the individual’s perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance.

– P-to-O expectancy = This is the perceived probability that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to a particular outcome.

– Outcome valences = A valence is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome. It ranges from negative to positive.

– E-to-P = To increase the employee’s belief that she or he is capable of performing the job successfully.

– P-to-O = To increase the employee’s belief that his or her good performance will result in certain (valued) outcomes.

– Outcome valences = To increase the employee’s expected satisfaction with outcomes resulting from desired performance.


– Specific. Goals lead to better performance when they are specific. Specific goals state what needs to be accomplished.

– Measurable. Goals need to be measurable because motivation occurs when people have some indication of their progress and achievement of those goals.

– Achievable. One of the trickiest aspects of goal setting is developing goals that are sufficiently but not overly challenging.

– Relevant. Goals need to be relevant to the individual’s job and within his or her control.

– Time-framed. Goals need a due date. They should specify when the objective should be completed or when it will be assessed for comparison against a standard.

– Exciting. Goals tend to be more effective when employees are committed to them, not just compliant.

– Reviewed. The motivational value of goal setting depends on employees receiving feedback about reaching those goals.


– A useful template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissatisfaction is the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model. As the name suggests, the EVLN model identifies four ways that employees respond to dissatisfaction.

– Exit. Exit includes leaving the organization, transferring to another work unit, or at least trying to get away from the dissatisfying situation.

– Voice. Voice is any attempt to change, rather than escape from, the dissatisfying situation. Voice can be a constructive response, such as recommending ways for management to improve the situation, or it can be more confrontational, such as filing formal grievances or forming a coalition to oppose a decision.

– Loyalty. In the original version of this model, loyalty was not an outcome of dissatisfaction. Rather, it predicted whether people chose exit or voice.

– Neglect. Neglect includes reducing work effort, paying less attention to quality, and increasing absenteeism and lateness.

The general adaptation syndrome consists of three stages:

– Alarm reaction stage occurs when a threat or challenge activates the physiological stress responses. The individual’s energy level and coping effectiveness decrease in response to the initial shock.

– The second stage, resistance, activates various biochemical, psychological, and behavioral mechanisms that give the individual more energy and engage coping mechanisms to overcome or remove the source of stress.

– People with a limited resistance capacity, and if the source of stress persists, the individual will eventually move into the third stage, exhaustion.

An individual’s voluntary behavior and performance is

influenced by motivation, ability, role perceptions, and

situational factors represented by the acronym MARS

  • Need to understand all four factors to diagnose and influence

individual behavior and performance

Self-Concept Model:

– Social Self

– Self-enhancement

– Self-evaluation

– Self-verification

– 3 Cs of Self-Concept: Complexity, consistency, clarity

Schwartz Values Model:

  • Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways
  • Conservation — motivation to preserve the status quo
  • Self-enhancement — motivated by self-interest
  • Self-transcendence — motivation to promote welfare of others and nature

Effective Team Member Behaviors:

– Cooperating

– Coordinating

– Communicating

– Comforting

– Conflict Handling

Research tells us that three conditions are essential to a group’s effectiveness:

  1. Trust among members
  2. A sense of group identity
  3. A sense of group efficacy

High       Identification Based Trust

                Knowledge Based Trust

Low        Calculus Based Trust

Skills needed by Managers LATCH

– Leadership Skills

– Analytical Skills

– Technical Skills

– Conceptual Skills

– Human relation skills


  • They want something.

           Need theory

  • They do what they think will get them what they want.

      Expectancy theory

  • Then they react to what they get.

          Equity theory


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