In recent years, mental skills techniques such as imagery and breathing exercises have become popular tools to enhance performance on the football field. (http://www.theage.com.au/afl/st-kilda-saints/saints-training-to-win-mind-games-20150624-ghwxoi.html) For example, the St Kilda Football Club now teaches players how to imagine (i.e., visualize) their kicking action with the aim of improving kicking accuracy. The theory behind this approach is that imagining an action activates similar brain processes to actually performing that action. Your task as a researcher is to test the effectiveness of this technique. To this end, you ask a sample of 62 St Kilda players to complete the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ-2), a well-validated imagery measure. Scores on the VMIQ-2 range from 12 to 60 with higher scores indicating better imagery ability. You also measure each player’s kicking accuracy (scores range from 0-100 with higher scores indicating higher kicking accuracy). Finally, you run a regression analysis on the data to test the hypothesis that imagery ability will be a significant predictor of kicking accuracy. You obtain the following output from the analysis:______________________________________________________________
Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation NKicking Accuracy 62.02 18.132 62VMIQ-2 Score 29.6774 10.23779 62
Variables Entered/RemovedaModel Variables Entered Variables Removed Method1 VMIQ-2 Scoreb . Entera. Dependent Variable: Kicking Accuracyb. All requested variables entered.
Model SummaryModel R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate1 .407a .165 .152 16.701a. Predictors: (Constant), VMIQ-2 Score
ANOVAaModel Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.1 Regression 3318.690 1 3318.690 11.898 .001b Residual 16736.293 60 278.938 Total 20054.984 61 a. Dependent Variable: Kicking Accuracyb. Predictors: (Constant), VMIQ-2 Score
CoefficientsaModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 40.635 6.552 6.202 .000 VMIQ-2 Score .720 .209 .407 3.449 .001a. Dependent Variable: Kicking Accuracy
1. With help from the unit materials, report the results of the analysis in APA format including all relevant information. (3 Marks)
2. What percentage of the variability in kicking accuracy is not explained by imagery ability? Name one other factor that could reasonably be expected to influence kicking accuracy. (2 Marks)
3. Based on the SPSS output, state the unstandardized regression equation that allows you to predict kicking accuracy from VMIQ-2 scores. (1 Mark)
4. Kicking accuracy scores in the AFL are normally distributed with a mean of 60 (SD = 10). Jason, who has just nominated for the national draft, scores 55 on the VMIQ-2. Should the St Kilda Football Club recruit Jason based on his kicking accuracy? Justify your response? (2 Marks)
5. Assume you are a Sports Psychologist. Would you recommend imagery training as a technique for improving kicking accuracy? Justify your response. (2 Marks)
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