Write my Paper  Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Retention and Socioeconomic Status on Student Academic Achievement Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Retention and Socioeconomic Status on Student Academic Achievement 

Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Retention and Socioeconomic Status on Student Academic Achievement Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Retention and Socioeconomic Status on Student Academic Achievement
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Investigating the Synergistic Effects of Retention and Socioeconomic Status on Student Academic Achievement







Chapter Four: Research FindingsIntroductionObligatory retention policy as applied in the state of Florida as observed do not represent the success rates that would have been expected. It is the purpose of this paper to explicate the
performance of variously categorized students in accordance with the whims of the retention policy. This part of the paper seeks to establish the findings made with regards to the relationship
between the socio-economic status and academic achievement as well as the relationship (if any) between retention and academic performance. It further seeks to look into whether the findings of
this study establish a link between the three aforementioned variables. The main objective of the paper will be to evaluate questions presented in the fashion that they relate to the inclusivity of the following: 1. Does SES have an effect on student performance? If so, what is the effect especially to students in middle school?2. Does grade retention of students in middle school has an effect on their performance?3. Among middle school students, what are the synergistic effects of SES retention on academic performance?4. The last question relates to the question as to whether there is a relationship between the retention of grades, students and the socio economic status. What is the effect on academic
achievement?Responses to the questions posted above will show the various relationships as are devoted to the study. Through observing the data collected, statistical and empirical evidence, the performance of
the students as relates to retention policies will be assessed. The findings of this study show that there is a probability of grades being different when students are exposed to different socio-
economic studies. Academic retention is a weighty issue that must be weighed with reference with the current situation espoused in the state of Florida.  In this chapter, the focus will be on the statistical data as was collected. With the rich information to present the findings, it should be noted that an evaluation of results will be
necessitated. Additionally, this paper seeks to ensure that a two way analysis of variance is established and modified to help give a more accurate conclusion about the relationship between
retention policy and academic performance in middle school students. In the sublimation of the test, SES will be analyzed alongside retention with an examination of the synergistic effect on
academic performance.Findings made in this study effectively conclude that there is indeed a relationship between academic achievement in students from a well off socio-economic status and those from the lower scale
socio-economic status. Data analysis through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was the computer software that was used to analyze quantitative data by means of statistical
analysis.  Through SPSS, it is important to note that every detail of the results found will be able to be analyzed in a fashion that is a true reflection of the happenings of the ground.In the collection of data for this study, measures were taken to ensure that participants used were consistent. This was to ensure consistency of results and ease of comparison between the
different results. When compared, it should be mentioned that different grade levels tended to show similar results for the wholesome school setting. The location for data collection was obtained
from the Florida Department of Education and as such was utilized to the maximum. The Student Management System and Enterprise and Enterprise Data Warehouse were very helpful sources of the data
that was required. The total population of the students who participated amounted to 1327 and the time period was 4 years (2010 – 2014).The data used in these findings was a reflection of the social status of participants’ from Robinswood Middle School with a sampling relating to those who qualified for free lunch and for those
that required other avenues of making their way through the school day. In the selection, it is important to note that• Participants who are qualified for free or reduced lunch, imply that they are participants from a low socio-economic status• students who have been given the direct certification status implies that they were not categorized as being from a low socio-economic status; and • Other demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity were not controlled in this study. The use of the Enterprise data Warehouse in the Florida education system made it possible for researchers to ensure that demographic details were accurate. In addition, the achievement of each and
every student could be accessed in a way that could be truthfully analyzed. To assess the students’ academic achievement, the study made use of scores from the Florida comprehensive Assessment Test
(FCAT).Data extraction is very useful if the specific needs of each student were available (it was the case). The socio-economic status of the students was instrumental because this meant that the
objectives of the study were realized in the end.
Research QuestionsThe manner in which the data in this study has been analyzed is a representation of the four research questions that are sought to be answered in this study. In response to all the four questions,
the data presented were passed through the ANOVA test which greatly helped in establishing the findings in this study. This was done for purposes of establishing the distinctive features (if any)
between the FCAT scores of the participants who had been retained in the different grades between 6th and 8th grade. The third and fourth questions were answered through carrying out a thorough
analysis of the findings made in questions one and two.The data provided in this case shows that out of the total number of participants which was 1327, the total number of students who were directly certified were 884 which translates to 66.6% of the
entire participant population. Out of these 884 participants, a total of 146 were retained either once or more than once. This translates to 16.5% of the 884 participants. The number of
participants who were eligible for free lunch was 278 which translated to 20.9% of the entire participant population. Out of this population, a total of 50 participants were retained accounting for
18.0% of the population that was eligible for free lunch. The number of participants that were eligible for reduced lunch were 55 which accounts for 4.1% of the entire population. Out of these 55,
only 8 of the participants were retained which accounts for 14.5% of this population. The number of participants that applied but were considered as “not eligible” were 27 which accounts for 2.0%
and out of these 27 participants, only 2 were retained. These two translates to 7.4% of the participants that were not eligible. Lastly, the number of participants that were not applicable summed
up to 59 out of the total 1327 participants which accounted for 4.4% of the entire population. Out of these 59 participants only 6 of them were retained thereby accounting for 10.2% of the non-
applicable participants. The following two tables accompanied by the graphs below show the manner in which the above mentioned data was truncated.
Status Number of Participants Percentage (%)Direct Certification 884 66.6Eligible- Free Lunch 278 20.9Eligible- Reduced Lunch 55 4.1Not Applicable 59 4.4Applied Not Eligible 27 2.0Percentages have been rounded off Retention TableCategory Number of participants Retained PercentageDirect Certification 146 16.5Eligible- free Lunch 50 18.0Eligible- Reduced Lunch 8 14.5Not Applicable 6 10.2Applicable- Not Eligible 2 7.4 Percentages have been rounded off
FindingsWith regards to the comparison made between the number of retentions (regardless of whether it’s one, two or three) as a result of students failing the FCAT between their 6th grade and 8th Grade
and their socioeconomic status. The socioeconomic status is shown through either (free or reduced price lunch status) through to 2014.It is clear when looking at the results of this study that there exists no major distinction between the numbers of times a student is retained due to them failing in the FCAT tests and their
socioeconomic status in 2010 through to 2014. This question basically looked into the existing variations in the different years between retention and socioeconomic status (SES).The findings of this study were able to positively confirm that indeed there exists an affirmative link between the family’s socioeconomic status and the academic achievements of the different
participants. It is definitely a clear confirmation that indeed participants who hailed from a high socioeconomic status performed better in their FCAT scores compared to those from low
socioeconomic status all through from 2010 to 2014. Those who were from the low socioeconomic status which was reflected through reduced or free lunch were the ones who were mainly retained and it
is clear through the findings made in this study that the effect of retention on participants from a low socio economic background are very low if close to none. The student SES was measured mainly
by using participation in the federal reduced-price lunch program as an indicator to poverty.  The reduction in each classification is supposed to be in accordance to its total reduced frequency. This therefore translates to there being a similar relationship between the reduction in each
category and total observed frequencies. A good illustration is in the classification of low SES which comprised of averagely half of the participants’ population for students who were retained
repeatedly. This means that the percentage accounted for the number of Low SES participants should be likened to percentage of retentions with regards to participants who were retained within the
specified period of  time.In a bid to answer the second question which entailed making a comparison between the developmental scales in FCAT Reading and Mathematics Scores from 2010 to 2014 of students retained between
6thgrade and 8th grade. The findings made with regards to answering this question were such that no substantial differences were found in the FCAT Developmental Scales Scores in both Reading and
Mathematics between 2010 and 2014. The findings of this research question aimed at making an analysis of the findings of the FCAT Developmental Scale Scores of students who were retained between 6th and 8thgrade in the years 2010 to
2014, once, twice or three times. These findings were thereafter to be compared to the student’s FCAT Reading and Mathematics Developmental Scale Scores that ensued through to the year 2014. The
independent variables in this study were the FCAT Reading and Mathematical Scale Score that were tested between 6th and 8th grade as well as the participants’ subsequent FCAT Reading and
Mathematical Developmental Scale Scores.The third and fourth questions have clearly been illustrated through the findings made in the first and second questions. The findings made in this study illustrated how grade retention does
actually play a significant role in the participant’s academic achievement. This was clearly illustrated through making a comparison of the participant’s performance through their FCAT both before
being retained and after being retained. A majority of the students who had been retained in either grades performed better in their subsequent FCAT scores. The findings specifically reflected on
the positive effects that grade retention had on a majority of the participants especially with regards to their performance in both maths and English language. It is clear therefore, that there
indeed exists a significant relationship between retention and academic achievement. It is clear through the findings made in this study that students who undergo retention are not always affected negatively in terms of the academic performance. It in fact tends to have a number of
positive effects on the performance of the participants especially in Maths and English language. Other factors that were seen to affect the participants performance once retained were inclusive of
their socioeconomic status as well as their race. This is so in that the study illustrated that a high number of African Americans that were form low socioeconomic status were retained more than
twice between 6th and 8th grade. Participants from low socioeconomic status seemed to undergo retention more than those in the high socioeconomic status. This therefore goes to show that indeed,
there exists a relationship between grade retention, socioeconomic status and the academic achievement of the participants .SummaryIn accordance to the findings made in this study, it is clear therefore that there is substantial difference in the numerical variances between a student’s socio-economic status and the number of
times a student has been retained. This study has gone a long way in helping to establish that there indeed exists a link between the three variables which are the participant’s socioeconomic
status, retention and their academic achievement. The study further goes to prove correct the studies that were of the opinion that students from a low SES tend to be negatively affected by
retention as compared to those from high SES.

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