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Introduction: • This is the introduction of your topic to your reader. • Required: Provide sufficient background information (expressed in your words…not copied from sources) that you are establishing the foundation for the rest of your paper. • After you have sufficiently provided background information, include your question and then your hypothesis/hypotheses. o Required: Please use a subheading “Question” so your question is very apparent. You might also provide more information within your “Question” subheading about your question. o Required: Please use a subheading “Hypothesis (or Hypotheses)”. Make sure that your hypothesis is complete and that it is not composed as a question or as a prediction. o Optional: If you wish to include predictions based on your hypothesis, you certainly may. If you do this make a subheading “Prediction (Predictions)”. Remember, predictions are if…then…statements. You might include information about the prediction and its relevance or correlation to your hypothesis or question. • Required: Incorporate examples and evidence. Explain these examples and evidence in depth…not just in general terms.
Results: Here is where you present the information (data, evidence) that you will use to support your hypothesis/hypotheses and predictions. The Results section will include paragraphs of writing, tables, figures, and images. You can talk about other researchers’ data, methods, research, hypotheses, predictions, results, and conclusions. You need to analyze data and then present it in tables and figures. In the Results section you present information that you will be discussing in the Discussion section.
Required Table: You must include minimally one table of information/observations/data. Each table must have a complete title. Number your tables consecutively and then you can refer to them in the body of your paper as Table 1.
Here is an example of a complete title for a table: Table 1. Comparison of the size of the temporal lobe of brains in various species of lemurs.
If the information in the table came from a source, then you must include the source’s annotated citation at the end of the table or within the table’s title.
In addition, include the source’s complete citation(s) in the Literature Cited section.
Required Figure: A figure is a graph or image of some type that is visually presenting information. You must include minimally one figure that graphically presents your analysis of the data. Each figure must have a complete title. Number your figures consecutively and then you can refer to them in the body of your paper as Figure 1.
Here is an example of a title for a figure: Figure 1. Average flight distances flown by monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) as correlated to climate change in North America during the past 500 years.
If the information in the figure came from a source, then you must include the source’s annotated citation at the end of the figure or within its title. In addition, include the source’s complete citation(s) in the Literature Cited section.
Discussion: This section of a paper often is quite extensive because here is where you really can present your story, your thoughts, your analysis, etc. You can still include tables, figures, and images in this section. You can draw upon other researchers’ methods, data, results, discussions, and conclusions. For many, this is the most fun section to write and to read because this is where the author has been able to craft the story.
Conclusion: This is a brief summation of each portion of the paper: introduction, results (data), and discussion).
Abstract: Refer to the following website: Writing Abstracts: Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/abstracts.shtml
Literature Cited Section: Include a “Literature Cited” section at the end of your paper. Just a note: This is a “Literature” and not a “Works” cited section because you are citing articles published in scientific journals. Such articles are called “scientific literature”. In contrast, “Works” cited sections include periodicals and other sources that are not published in peer-review venues.
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