We can work on to what extend does incarceration disproportionately affect transgender community in comparison to cisgender people

Topic: how incarceration disproportionately affect transgender community that put them at the risk of economic survival

Extra Information:
Each student will write a research paper that presents an original empirical piece of quantitative research based on the analysis of secondary data. The paper must follow the format of a political science journal article and should include the following sections:
1) an introduction that briefly introduces the literature (literature review) and describes the research question and contribution of the research;
2) a description of the data, measures, and methods of analysis;
3) a presentation and interpretation of findings; and
4) a discussion of the implications of the findings in relation to theory, prior research, and/or policy.
You will also be expected to discuss any data handling or estimation problems you encounter and to present all results in a professional manner.
Remember, the goal of the paper is to demonstrate your ability to formulate a research hypothesis/ question, and apply the appropriate statistical techniques to test this hypothesis/ answer this question. Your final paper should be a minimum of 15 pages, double spaced.

The final paper you submit at the end of the semester must include: (1) a clearly formulated research question, (2) a literature review, (3) a design for research (and a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of your design), (4) the results of your data collection, (5) an analysis of those results.
Research papers (15-20 pages) will be graded on the basis of both content and writing, including research design, data collection, methodological skills, and presentational effectiveness.

This is the annoyed bibilography I wrote for 5 sources: It gives you a head start
Annotated Bibliography
Project, Movement Advancement, and Center for American Progress. “Unjust: How the
Broken Criminal Justice System Fails Transgender People.” Http://Www.lgbtmap.org, May 2016, www.lgbtmap.org/policy-and-issue-analysis/criminal-justice-trans. Accessed 22 November 2017.

The report shows how the U.S criminal justice system not only fails transgender people but also targets them. It highlights statistical representation of transgender people and other gender nonconforming people in the prison system and the reasons for their overrepresentation. The report breaks down the reasons for overrepresentation that leads them into the criminal justice system due to bad and discriminating laws. It further goes it detail to emphasise on the treatment of these individuals in the system once they enter and how they are treated upon release. Towards the end it suggests number of different reforms that can help decrease the incarceration rate of transgender people and how creating better reentry programs can help them back into the society for their economical survival.

Vitulli, Elias. “Racialized Criminality and the Imprisoned Trans Body: Adjudicating
Access to Gender-Related Medical Treatment in Prisons.” Social Justice, vol. 37, no. 1 (119), 2010, pp. 53–68. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41336935. Accessed 22 November 2017.

Vitulli talks about how the criminal justice system and prison system plays an important role in the production of intersectionality such as race, class, citizenship, gender and sexuality in the society especially the U.S. He emphasizes that understanding and discussing of the racialized criminality structures these trans prison decisions are based on, can not be neglected as they form a standard when convicted. He also mentions how prisoners bodies and rights are interpreted through constructions of non-heteronormativity. “The courts’ legal and social narratives of violence, accessibility, normativity and deviance, inside and outside, and innocence and guilt are filtered through the symbols, concepts, and imagery of race and racialized criminality”. This article helps in introducing race as a factor contributing towards the unfair treatment of transgender people in the court system as well as in the prison system once entered.

Spade, Dean. Normal Life : Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the
Limits of Law. Revised and Expanded ed. 2015. Print.

Dean Spade in his book emphasis on the need for social change that can be achieved through transformative grassroots trans activism that go beyond civil rights reforms. He proposes ideas and projects to abolish prisons, end immigration enforcement, and redistribute wealth through taxation and funding social programs. He argues that the connection between race, immigration status and gender are used as administrative categories to form population grouping of people that are used for the construction of state policies that support the wellness and wealth of anglo, male and cis people. It further contributes towards unemployment, imprisonment, discrimination against people of color, women, and trans people through the increasing growth in the production of prisons, dismantling of social programs and state trying to profit of off capitalism. To change this will require dismantling of these interlocked systems.

Stanley, Eric A., and Nat Smith. “Captive genders: trans embodiment and the prison
industrial complex.” AK Press, 2015, pp. 15-37.

I’ll be using the chapter “Building an abolitionist trans and queer movement with everything we’ve got” in this book that is a collaboration by of Dean Spade, Morgan Bassichis and Alexander Lee. The authors focuses on the actual impacts of different strategies that have been tused to better the lives of trans people. The issues are broken down with its respective official solutions available by the movement and lastly transformative approaches being used by more radical and progressive queer and trans organizing to expand possibilities for broad based, social justice solution to the same problems. This provides us what possible transformation is needed to challenge this social issue. With possible solution is provides a historic background of how these issues came into existence. Slowly and gradually these historical events contributed towards an increase in the incarceration rate rather than increase in the development of rehabilitation centers or programs.

Meyer, Ilan H., et al. “Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United
States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 107, no. 2, Feb. 2017, pp. 234–240., doi:10.2105/ajph.2016.303576.

A survey was done in the year 2011 and 2012 to determine the sexual minorities present in prisons and the challenges they face in the prison industrial system. The study shows disproportionate overrepresentation of sexual minorities among the incarcerated, particularly among women, indicates an urgent need to incorporate this new insight into public health and criminal justice approaches to incarceration. Therefore, there is a need of special attention in particular, awareness of the heightened risk that sexual minority populations face for sexual victimization, isolation, disproportionate punishment, and psychological distress ought to guide both officials working in these settings and public health professionals.

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