- Introduction and Background of the Study
Development of new technologies has come with numerous negative effects in the workplaces (Gualerzi 67). Technology advancement dominated many sectors in the second half of the 20th century and the trend is the same in the 21st century. Both developed and developing countries in different parts of the world have experienced the development of new technologies that affected how work is done, education, healthcare services, security, the social life of the people and other aspects. Workplaces are among the sectors that have been greatly affected by new technologies experienced in the last years of the 20th century and the 21st century (Jin 32). Although new technology has come with many benefits, it has also resulted in various negative effects that should be addressed. However, many people tend to ignore the negatives effects of new technologies and more emphasis is put on positive effects only. In other words, people are more concerned about the benefits they are likely to gain from the development of new technologies without looking at the possible negative effects.
Workplaces are among the places that have been greatly affected by the development of new technologies. Many organizations are quick to embrace new technologies and this has been happening for several decades (Kuhn, and Carsten 46). Whenever a new technology is introduced, organizations, both public and private, are quick to embrace it hoping to increase their revenues or lower operating costs. For instance, when the computer technology was introduced, many organizations shifted from the old ways of doing business by automating their operations. It became a requirement for workers in many organizations to be conversant with how a computer works. The introduction of the internet changed the way of doing business in many organizations even more. Most organizations embraced the internet by doing most of their business activities online. Actually, many organizations have made their operations easier and more effective using new technologies in their industry (Health Work Place 1). Subsequently, many organizations have been able to reduce their operating costs, grow their revenues and improve customer services.
Generally, business organizations have enjoyed numerous benefits courtesy of developments of new technologies. These benefits range from effective communication, effective transportation, efficiency in running the affairs of the organization, accuracy, timeliness when conducting business activities and many more (Hansson and Elin 18). However, it is worth noting that development of new technologies does not come with benefits only. Actually, technological growth witness in the second half of the 20th century and in the 21st century has come with numerous negative effects in the workplace. Although very little is said about the negative effects of new technology, a lot has been happening whereby organizations, their workers, and employees are greatly affected. The worrying fact is that organizations and individuals continue to embrace the developments of new technologies and very little is done about its negative effects.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The negative effects of the development of new technologies have been ignored for many decades. Many business organization put more emphasize of the positive effects of new technologies and forget how the same technology affects their operations and workers (Gualerzi 67). It is a common trend in every part of the world, in both developed and developing countries, for organizations to embrace new technologies in their operations. In many instances, old technologies are ignored whenever a more sophisticated technology is introduced. Many organizations invest huge amounts of money in technology because hoping that it will make their operations easier and effective, reduce operation costs, increase revenue and promote customer satisfaction. It is irrefutable that development of new technologies has enabled many organizations to be more productive and profitable (Gunasegaram 1). Actually, organizations that take advantage of new technologies perform better than those that are reluctant to incorporate new technologies into their operations.
However, the introduction of new technology comes with many negatives effects in the workplaces that are yet to be addressed. Probably, organizations do not know about the existence of these factors or they deliberately ignore them and emphasize only on the benefits. The truth is that although the development of new technologies has brought numerous benefits to business organizations, it has also come with several negative effects that cannot be ignored. For instance, development of new technologies in workplaces has resulted in increased stress, communication breakdowns, distractions, health issues, job elimination, electronic leash and security issues among others (Jin 78-79). It is therefore important to conduct an empirical study to determine some of the key negative effects of the development of new technologies in workplaces. That way, it will be easy for modern organizations to balance how they utilize new technologies to reduce its negative effects at the workplace and maximize its benefits.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are categorized into general objectives and specific objectives for clarity and easier understanding.
1.3.1. General Objective
The main or general objective of the study is to determine the negative effects of the development of new technologies in workplaces. The idea is to determine how modern organizations and workers have been affected by new technologies.
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
- To determine how development and use of new technologies at workplace affect organizations negatively.
- To determine how development and use of new technologies at workplace affects workers negatively.
- To determine whether the negative effects of the development of new technologies outweigh positive effects.
- To determine how modern organizations can reduce the negative effects of new technologies at the workplace.
1.4. Research Questions
In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher will find answers to the following research questions.
- How do the development and use of new technologies at workplace affect organizations negatively?
- How do the development and use of new technologies at workplace affect workers negatively?
- Do the negative effects of the development of new technologies outweigh the positive effects?
- How can modern organizations reduce the negative effects of new technologies at the workplace?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study is important in many aspects to the public and private organizations, the academicians and policymakers at all levels of governance. To the academicians, findings of this study will provide more literature in the area that has been scarcely studied. It is worth noting that several studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects the development of new technologies in the workplaces but very little has been done specifically about the negative effects. Therefore, this study will serve as an exposure and a foundation for future scholars studying issues related the negative effects of the development of new technologies in the workplace, with respect to workers and business organizations.
To modern business organizations, this study is extremely important because it will provide modern managers with crucial information about the negative effects of the development of new technologies in the workplace. This includes public and private business organizations, profit-oriented and non-profit oriented organizations, and NGOs among other institutions. The management teams in the above-named organizations can use the findings of this study to make informed decisions on how they can regulate the use of new technologies in their organizations. Managers will use findings of this study to determine to what extent they can embrace new technologies to maximize its benefits while reducing its negative effects for the good of the organization and workers. This is actually, what many organizations in the 21st century need because technology cannot be completely ignored and new technologies will continue to be introduced at workplaces. What is important is for organizations to determine what technologies have more positive effects than negative effects on their organizations and embrace them accordingly.
1.6. The scope of the study
Firstly, the study will involve a thorough literature review of readily available peer review and scholarly sources in order to determine what other scholars and researchers have found in their past studies. This will be complemented with an actual/empirical study. The researcher intends to use responses from the working class population during the research. The researcher will conduct an actual study on workers from different employment levels in order to determine how they feel about the introduction of new technologies at their workplaces. During the study, the researcher will mainly use questionnaires to collect information from the respondents. This will be done through hand copy questionnaires and soft copy questionnaires sent through emails to those who cannot be easily reached. The study targets 120 respondents to fill the questionnaires from which a sample of 100 filled questionnaires will be randomly picked for analysis.
The researcher will evaluate data collected from the reviewed literature in order to determine to identify the key negatives effects of the development of new technologies in the workplaces. The findings collected from the empirical study and the reviewed literature will be used when making a conclusion, recommendations, and proposals for further studies. By this stage, the researcher will have completed the research based on the objectives of the study.
1.6. Organization of the study
The research will consist of five chapters. Chapter one will be the introductory part and it will highlight the background information of the study, statement of the problem, the significance of the study, goals, and objectives of the study and research question to be used as guidelines during the study. Chapter two will follow, which will be the literature review, theoretical framework, and conceptual framework. The chapter three will be the research design and methodology, which will highlights methods, tools and equipment used during the study for data collection, sorting, recording, analyzing and presentation of the findings. The chapter four of the study will include the findings of the study such as the data collected, data analysis and data presentation. The last chapter of the research, chapter five, will entail the conclusion, recommendations and proposals for further studies. This will be followed by the references and appendices.
1.7. Literature Review
The literature review section will identify what other scholars and researchers have established about the negative effects of the development of new technologies in the workplaces. The idea is to determine what has been established by other scholars to avoid repetition and to use the existing information as the foundation when conducting the empirical study. The reviewed literature will also help the identification of gaps in the available data, which will be used when designing the questionnaires to collect data in the actual study. Similarly, information collected in the literature review will be used as a point of reference when analyzing data collected during the study to enhance accuracy.
Job elimination is one of the key negative effects of the development of new technologies in the workplace (West 1). According to economic experts, the technological effects experienced in the second half of the 20th century and the 21st century has common effects with the Industrial Revolution that took place in the late years of the 18th century (Cooper 112). Development of new technologies in the workplaces has led to the displacement of workers by machines. Many tasks that were done by workers in the past decades are now performed by machines and computers. This is because machines have the ability to work faster than humans, work more accurately and for a long time without being fatigued. In the other works, technological advancements have enabled many organizations to reduce the number of its workers because most of the tasks at workplaces are now performed by machines. Subsequently, many people have been rendered jobless and without a source of income, courtesy of the developments of new technologies at workplaces.
Other than technology making many workers jobless, it has also contributed greatly to the electronic leash among modern works (Chao, Pham and Seregine 1). In the past decades, workers had nothing to do with their job after leaving workplaces in the evening for those working on day shifts. Such workers had enough time to rest and stay with their families until the following morning. However, technological advancement has changed this culture and today workers work even from home. Today workers can take work-related phone calls while on vacation, respond to emails and even use the internet to conduct meetings while away from the workplace. This has subsequently made it extremely difficult for many workers to balance between personal life and work. Sometimes workers have no time for rest and they end up being stressed. Privacy rights of many workers are violated in the modern days because of the advancement in technology (Hansson, and Elin 23). For instance, new technologies have come with sophisticated gadgets such as key cards, surveillance cameras and other high tech tools and equipment that are used to monitors workers in the workplace. In many cases, these gadgets monitor even the personal lives of workers leading to violation of the employee privacy. This consequently makes employees uncomfortable in the workplace and their performance declines.
Development of new technologies at workplaces has also put many organizations at high risk of losing some of its important data and information (Zhengxi and Andrija 16). Today many organizations have shifted to paperless offices whereby important data and information is stored in form of soft copies. Subsequently, these organizations put themselves at high risk of losing valuable information and data due to power outages, computer hacking and viruses. This makes it extremely difficult for modern organizations to safeguard confidential data and information as it was in the past decades. When it comes to organizational communication, development of new technologies has resulted in trust issue because workers rarely participate in face-to-face meetings and phone calls (Hislop 109). On the contrary, many works now use electronic chats, emails and text messages when they want to pass information to their colleagues and customers.
Continuation of the literature review section…
Outline for other parts of the research proposal
1.8.2. Research Philosophy
1.8.3. Research approach
1.8.4. Research design/ strategy
1.8.5. Data collection and Analysis
1.8.6. Sampling techniques
1.8. 7. Validity and Reliability of the Study
1.8. 8. Research limitations
1.8.9. Ethics Issues
References (More sources).
Please clarify whether you want 50 sources as works cited for just 7 pages paper. It will look overcrowded. Or you wanted 50 sources for the whole research paper?
Chao Tim, Pham Tuan and Seregine Mikhail. The Danger of Technological Progress. Retrieved on 9th January 2018 from http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs201/projects/1999-00/technology-dangers/issues.html
Cooper, Cary L. Mental Capital and Wellbeing. Chichester, West Sussex: Blackwell, 2010. Internet resource.
Gualerzi Davide. The Coming of Age of Information Technologies and the Path of Transformational Growth: A Long Run Perspective on the 2000s Recession. 2009.
Gunasegaram Marla R. The Effects of New Technology on Corporate Culture. Retrieved on 9th January 2018 from http://besser.tsoa.nyu.edu/impact/f99/Papers/gunasegaram.html
Hansson, Sven O, and Elin Palm. The Ethics of Workplace Privacy. Bruxelles: PIE-Peter Lang, 2005. Print.
Health Work Place. Health Technology in the Workplace: Leveraging technology to protect and improve worker health. 2015. Retrieved on 9th January 2018 from http://healthyworkplaces.berkeley.edu/wellness/health-technology-in-the-workplace-leveraging-technology-to-protect-and-improve-worker-health/
Hislop. Donald. Mobility and Technology in the Workplace. Routledge, 2008.
Jin, Zhouying. Global Technological Change: From Hard Technology to Soft Technology. , 2011. Print.
Kuhn, Michael, and Carsten Ochsen. Labour Markets and Demographic Change. Wiesbaden: VS, Verl. für Sozialwiss, 2009.
West Darrell M. What Happens if Robots Take The Jobs? The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Employment and Public Policy. 2015. Retrieved on 9th January 2018 from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/robotwork.pdf
Zhengxi Lin and Andrija Popovic. The Effects of Computers on Workplace Stress, Job Security and Work Interest in Canada. 2002. Retrieved on 9th January 2018 from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/RH63-1-566-01-03E.pdf
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