We can work on The impact of communicable diseases (infectious diseases) on human health

The impact of communicable diseases (infectious diseases) on human health is obvious. The sudden outbreak of “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” [SARS-CoV-2]” (COVID-19) has made people realize the threat of communicable diseases and their threat to mankind as a complex humanitarian emergency. A highly reactive, multifunctional, and efficient emergency management system should be established, and the significance of information communication should be fully understood in the future (Jin et al., 2020).
• Discuss the impact of COVID-19 on global health and social outcomes as a complex humanitarian emergency
• What risk mitigation strategies are being deployed locally and internationally to mitigate the spread of the disease?

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This study has shown that there is a relationship between artificial light intensity and the feeding activity of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Fig. 1). By gathering leaflets of horse chestnut trees from a variety of locations at varying artificial light intensities, it was demonstrated that there is a moderate negative correlation between the artificial light intensity and leaf miner activity (Fig. 1). This was a surprising result as it was expected that leaf miner feeding activity would increase with increased artificial light intensity. It is worth considering therefore, the possible reasons for this negative correlation. A variant that could not be controlled when collecting artificial light intensity data was the wavelength of the light present. As technology has advanced, street lighting has moved from narrow spectrum lighting into broad spectrum lighting (Davies et al., 2013). This recent changeover has brought about changes in insect ecosystems that have not been investigated thoroughly (Davies et al., 2013). Throughout the sample site, there are four different types of street lamp used: ConstantColor™ CMH White Light StreetWise™ Lamps (GE Lighting, Europe), SON High Pressure Sodium Lamps (Philips, Europe), Philips GRN LED light source (Phillips, United Kingdom) and Urbis Axia Lanterns with LED neutral white light source (Urbis Schréder, United Kingdom). Broad spectrum lighting, such as High Pressure Sodium lamps, allow insects to see within more of their spectral range (Davies et al., 2013). If the wavelength of the lights present is different across the sample site, falling in or out of the adult moth’s spectral range, the adult female’s activity could be influenced. This in turn could partially explain some of the distribution seen in Fig. 1. There is also variation between the broad spectrum lights that are used. With advances of technology, LED lighting is becoming more readily available (Pawson & Bader, 2014). Studies have shown that more insects are attracted to LED lights than the High Pressure Sodium lights that are being replaced (Pawson & Bader, 2014). Not all of the street lighting around the sample site had been replaced with LED lighting. Further research is required to determine whether wavelength and light type are factors when looking at the activity of horse chestnut leaf miners, Cameraria ohridella. Another species in the same genus as the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria hamadryadellam is known to lay its eggs just after dark (Connor, 2006). This species shows no discrimination between light and dark environments when laying its eggs, in line with its nocturnal lifestyle (Connor, 2006). Other species of leaf miner have also been shown not to have no preference of shaded and unshaded areas (Potter, 1992). However, C. ohridella does not follow this same pattern. There are suggestions based on the eyes of C. ohridella that this species follows a diurnal lifestyle (Fischer et al., 2012). Their diurnal lifestyle may mean that instead>

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