I’m working on a Psychology writing question and need an explanation to help me study.
Intro. to Psych. Outline 04
Sensation and Perception
I. Sensation – define/explain what it is.
A. Principles of Sensation
1. Transduction or translation – creating a neural code
• Absolute threshold
• Difference threshold
3. Sensory Adaptation
B. Illustration of Sensation: The Process of Vision
*Using the schematic just below, describe each stage of the process of vision, starting with a visual stimulus that is captured by receptor cells in the retina – the rods and cones – to its destination in the brain. Explain what the receptor cells do, what the optic nerve does, and what happens in the primary area of the occipital cortex
Stimulus à Receptors à Sensory neurons à Brain
Rods & ConesOptic nerve Primary occipital area:
2. *Next, describe what happens in the association pathways shown below, wherein sensation becomes perception:
• “WHAT” pathway: occipital à temporal
• “WHERE” pathway: occipital à parietal
II. Perception – define/ explain what it is.
A. Perceptual Organization (P.O.) Define/ explain what it is
1. Form perception: The Gestalt Laws of P.O
Explain each of the following Gestalt Laws/ Principle of PO:
2. Depth perception – define/ explain what it is.
• Binocular cues – what are they?
Explain binocular disparity
• Monocular cues – what are they?
Explain motion parallax
3. Perceptual constancy – define/ explain what it is, e.g., constancy of an object’s size and shape.
B. Perceptual Interpretation (P.I.): define/ explain what it is.
1. Gibson’s theory of “direct perception” – define/ explain it.
– Explain the “visual cliff” phenomenon
2. Psychological influences on P.I.
a. Context – explain how it influences perception
b. Expectations or schemas – explain what they are. Describe an
example of how they are involved in perception.
b. Motivations – given an example of how our motivations can
The food deprivation experiment. Describe what happened in
this classic experiment in terms of:
– what was manipulated (independent variables),
– what was measured (dependent variable)
– what the results were
– what the results showed or illustrated
C. “Bottom-up” vs. “Top-down” Perceptual Processing
1. Bottom-up processing – define/ explain what it is.
2. Top-down processing – define/ explain what it is.
You can use this example:
3. In perception, bottom-up and top-down processing are believed to occursimultaneously. Explain what that means.
D. Cultural/Environmental Influences on Perception
The Muller-Lyer Illusion – explain how it demonstrates the influence of culture on perception based on how people of different cultures either experience or don’t experience this illusion.
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