We can work on Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Discuss inductive versus deductive reasoning (as reviewed in Lesson 2) and how you would apply the concepts of each (inductive and deductive reasoning) to the following unsolved crime scene:

Police Investigation

A man was found murdered and his wife severely beaten early on a Sunday morning in April 2001. The trailer park they lived in is a community of young adults just struggling to get by in life. The couple were newlyweds, Caucasian, in their early twenties and were expecting their first child. The murder scene looked like a massacre. The police found the female victim barely conscious leaning against the wall by the front door where she had struggled to get help but was weak from loss of blood. She had suffered blunt force trauma over her entire body. Her right little finger had been severed from her hand and was later found in a pool of blood. She had also been raped while her husband lay dying in the bed next to her also suffering from blunt force trauma to his torso and head.

The trailer had been ransacked and various items were stolen to include video games, trading cards, and a gaming system. They had no money or items of any significant value. Tool marks could be found on the walls, interior of the front door, on the wooden floor of the bedroom where the attack occurred, and on the blades of the ceiling fan still spinning in the bedroom. Blood could be found everywhere in the form of medium velocity spatter, drippings, pooling, trails, and cast-off. Bloody shoe prints lead out the door and disappear in the dirt outside the back of the trailer.
During the police investigation, a tire iron was found under a trailer near the back of the trailer park. During the course of conducting a neighborhood canvas, detectives learned from residents that a large black male estimated to be in his thirties was seen wandering around the trailer park just prior to the time of murders. None of the residents recognized him as living in the trailer park or as a guest of anyone who lived in the trailer park. Detectives also learned that around the time of the murder, three teenage males were observed peeking in one of the trailer’s windows.

Sample Solution

The six propositions have a focus on gender, language, socioeconomic status, and geographic considerations. However, a potential flaw within the propositions is not considering ethnicity. Student ethnicity is not considered within the study nor the impacts of ethnic background on students choosing a HEI. This is a potential limitation when considering student choice of HEIs in the United States, specially the historically black colleges including Howard University, Spelman College, and Hapmton University. Since these schools do not have large endowments in comparison to large prestigious HEIs such as Harvard University, with an endowment of 36 billion dollars (Mulvey, J., and Holen, M., 2016), they cannot offer as much financial aid. Therefore, many students decide to attend a different HEI which can offer a more attractive financial aid package, but at the cost of sacrificing the opportunity of being part of a unparalleled cultural experience at a historically black college (Gasman, M., 2009). In the United States, endowments are the universities’ largest financial asset and serves a major determinant in student choice in HEIs. This study would benefit by having a comparative approach to HEIs in the United States if time and word limit permitted. A further point of tension within the study is the ambiguity of terms. Firstly, two out of the six propositions (ie. propositions two and six) did not provide a description which puts into question the validity of the study. Furthermore, the phrase “not entering HE” occurred nine times throughout the study. The researchers did not specify in any of those sentences what it means by “not entering HE.” An important question to ask is whether “not entering HE” refers to students taking a gap year and eventually returning to higher education or entering the labour market and never pursuing HE. This is a significant distinction because if students are taking a gap year but will return to HE it shows that they are impacted by the economy and having financial stability is an important consideration for them before starting their studies. There are no statistics in the study to outline the percentage of students not pursuing HE and no words to explain their decision. These are important considerations to help build depth within the study. The epistemological assumptions of this study help us to understand student choice of HEIs by hypothesizing and testing empirical approaches through a natural science lens. On the other hand, the ontological assumption concerns the natural world, taking in account the effects of the global financial crisis in 2008, and the human behavior within the global HE context (Pring 2005, p. 232). Wilkins, Shams, and Husiman embrace quantitative methods approach to the study, using SPSS software to generalize the findings and test the propositions. Since the data is in a numeric form, statistical tests are applied in making statements about the data. Quantitative studies help to produce data that is descriptive but difficulties arise when it comes to their interpretation. For instance, it is helpful that the study includes the demographics and socioeconomic statuses of the participants, but the study would have more depth if it integrated a qualitative approach in addition to the quantitative research. The students had a one hour discussion on the questionnaire yet there is no student voice, only statistics from SPSS. With group discussion responses we can have a qualitative measure of analysis of the data caption. Without properly interpreting the data behind these numbers, it is difficult to say why students choose HEIs based on financial considerations. In conclusion, the rise of tuition fees in England has altered the ways in which stu>

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