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1. An example of primary productivity would beA. a wild raspberry plant growing 30 grams of new leaf mass during a day of photosynthesis.B. a young oriole growing 10 grams of muscle during a feeding trip to a raspberry bush. C. a young hawk growing 10 more grams of body mass by killing and eating a young oriole. D. more than one of the above. 2. Diversity refers to A. number of different species presentB. number of ecological nichesC. amount of genetic diversityD. all of the above3. An ecosystem consists of A. A physical environment within which a biological community livesB. The species with which a biological community interactsC. A biological community and its physical environmentD. The primary producers within a biological communityE. All the species in a biological community4. A keystone species is a species whose presence A. Is the main reason a community existsB. Provides food for all other species in a communityC. Is an indicator of environmental healthD. Influences the population size of many other species in its communityE. Is always at the top of the trophic levels as a top predator5. Biomass includes all A. Material in an ecosystemB. Things that are living at a given timeC. Living and nonliving thingsD. Matter produced by primary producersE. Biological material6. No two species can occupy the same ecological niche as one species will outcompete the other one. A. TrueB. False7. Succession can produce changes in soil, degree of shade, available moisture, and species membership of a community. A TrueB False8. Cheetahs can run extremely fast because
A. They need to run extremely fast in order to catch their prey
B. An ancestor that was able to run fast had an advantage and passed those genes on to its offspring
C. Over time they gradually built up speed as they adapted to faster and faster prey species
D. They are competing with stronger lions and hyenas for their food so they need to be fast
E. All of these are reasons cheetahs can run extremely fast9. Most organisms’ niches are controlled by
A. Genetic determinants
B. Lessons learned from parents
C. Behavior learned from others in their social groups
E. The predators and competitors they encounter10. A biological community’s productivity is a measure of
A. Its number of species
B. The number of individuals in the community
C. Available solar energy that can be converted to biomass
D. The amount of biomass produced in the community
E. All of these are combined in measuring a community’s productivity11. Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
A. Into a climax community; species replaces another
B. And replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
C. On unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
D. And then fails; niche changes
E. Intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition12. Location of specific biomes can be predicted based on A. The Coriolis Effect B. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics C. Precipitation and temperature D. Seasonal variations in sunspots E. Large landforms in the area 13. A biome is described by A. A specified bioregionB. Broadly similar environmental conditions along similar latitudinal patternsC. A watershed divide, generallyD. Geographic locationE. Large landforms in the area14. Deciduous forests A. Are adapted to extremely cold climatesB. Have trees that bear seeds in conesC. Have trees that shed their leaves seasonallyD. Are not useful commerciallyE. Are not found in the African continent15. Boreal forests are generally A. Cold and dry, with extensive barren areasB. Warm and humid, with large riversC. Dry because water is frozen most of the yearD. Slow-growing because of the cold temperaturesE. Soggy in the summer because of permafrost16. Estuaries are noted by biologists because they have few, but highly specialized, biological niches. A. True B. FALSE17. Wetlands perform a major ecosystem service of trapping and filtering water as it passes through the wetland area.A. True B. FALSE18. In contrast with the ______________, the soil of the ______________ is more nutrient-rich and this type of biome has fewer insects, parasites and fungal diseases. Therefore, in many places, these areas are highly endangered. A. Temperate grasslands; tropical seasonal forestB. Tropical rainforest; tropical seasonal forestC. Grasslands; boreal forestsD. Tropical seasonal forest; tropical rainforestE. Boreal forests; tundra19. Carrying capacity is the population or biomass A. That an environment can support in an optimal year B. Of a species that an environment can support on a long-term basis C. That remains after a catastrophic dieback has occurred D. Of a species without limiting factors E. Of a species without predators 20. the most overfished species in the world is Bluefin tuna. A. TrueB. False21. You are studying an organism that is a pioneer species is an opportunist and does not care for its offspring. This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy. A. K-adaptedB. R-adaptedC. IrregularD. CatastrophicE. R-adapted and irregular22. You are studying an organism that is fairly large, matures slowly, lives fairly long and cares for its offspring. This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy. A. K-adapted B. R-adapted C. Irregular D. Catastrophic E. R-adapted and irregular 23. Life expectancy is the A. Maximum life span that an individual of a given species could reachB. Number of individuals in a population that survive in a given yearC. Number of years an individual of a certain age will probably liveD. Probability that an individual will survive infancyE. All of these are descriptions of life expectancy24. Ninety percent of the world’s population growth in the next century is expected to occur in A. Less-developed countriesB. ChinaC. Developed countriesD. Moderately developed nationsE. India25. Which of the following factors does not usually affect the crude death rates of a population? A. Health care B. Sanitation C. Age structure of the population D. Nutrition E. All of these affect crude death rates 26. The histogram on the left represents a population whose birth rates A. Have not changed for many yearsB. Have recently decreasedC. Are gradually increasingD. Are sharply increasingE. None of these – birth rates cannot be determined by the age class histogram27. The population represented by the age class histogram on the right will A. Have a large population of old people soonB. Not grow much in the coming yearsC. Soon begin to declineD. Grow substantially in the futureE. Grow slowly in the futur28. Women who ________ are least likely to have many children. A. Cannot afford childrenB. Live where many children die youngC. Are subordinate to their husbandsD. Are able to earn an income for themselvesE. All of these are correctUse the following demographic data on three hypothetical countries for question # 29. Country “A” Country “B” Country “C”Fertility (per female) 2.0 3.1 6.7Infant Mortality (per 1000 people) 9 69 62Life Expectancy (years) 75.5 65 61Per-capita income (U.S. dollars) $21,700 $2,680 $370Doubling Time (years) 89 37 1929. Which of the following demographic categories best identifies Country “A”? A. DevelopedB. Moderately developedC. Less developedD. DevelopingE. Third World30. The world’s human population is about 7.4 billion. A. TrueB. False31. Climate is a description of ________ weather conditions. A. Long-term, regionalB. Stable and unchangingC. TemporaryD. Temporary, localE. Annual32. The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere occurs because A. Clouds reflect sunlight back into space B. Oceans absorb heat and then release it slowly at night C. Stratospheric ozone absorbs UV radiation D. CO2, water vapor, methanol and other gases absorb infrared radiation E. All of these are correct 33. Since the mid 1960’s what has happened to the snow cover in the northern hemisphere and sea levels measured in Stockholm, Sweden? A. Snow cover has increased; Sea levels have increased B. Snow cover has decreased; Sea levels have increased C. Snow cover has increased; Sea levels have decreased D. Snow cover has decreased; Sea levels have decreased 34. According to climate computer models, which of the following activities accounts for most of the increase in the Earth’s temperature over the past century? A. Volcanic eruptions. B. Natural variability. C. Increased solar radiation coming from the sun. D. Human activity.35.. Which of the following statements about the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere from 1960 until 2000 is true? A. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has remained fairly constant. B. The amount of carbon dioxide had decreased. C. While there have been intra-annual cycle fluctuations, the overall trend has been an increase in carbon dioxide. D. While there have been intra annual cycle fluctuations, the overall trend shows both an increase and decrease in carbon dioxide. 36.. Deforestation and fossil fuel emissions _______. A. act as a sink of carbon by tying up carbon in the world’s oceans B. cannot be measured accurately C. are not a significant source of carbon into the atmosphere D. contribute to an excess of carbon into the atmosphere Purchase the answer to view it
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