300-500 words and at least 3 sources (2 must be articles from scholarly journals)

For this assignment, you will seek out at least two articles from scholarly journals related to your area of service. This will require searching the resources available through the BHCC library. (It also will require that you have activated your student ID card at the library.)

Apply what you have learned about research methods to your area of service, with attention to the importance of considering worldview and unconscious assumptions. Who is doing the research in this area? What kinds of questions are being asked? What conclusions are being drawn? Do they conflict? Do you think that different questions should be asked or that there may be a better way to design the research? Integrate the information that you found with your experience and write about it in this section.

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Over fifty million civilians in this country have a disability (Brault, 2012). Approximately 17% of the country’s 21.2 million veterans had a service-connected disability rating in 2012 (National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics, 2013). According to the National Service Inclusion Project nearly one-third of all families in the US are impacted by disability ( Disability is a broad term that encompasses different meanings. The notion of disability is embedded in the context in which it is used and the lens through which it is viewed. The medical model is a deficit model that measures against a psychological and biological norm. Viewed through a social model lens, disability itself is not the issue; it is the subsequent lack of opportunity that is problematic. The social relational model of disability focuses on the interaction between the impairment and environmental and social barriers (Martin, 2013). Adaptive sports address disability through social and social relational lenses.
Interest in adaptive sports for rehabilitation, and even as a treatment modality in its own right, has piqued, especially as more and more veterans return from combat with debilitating psychological and physical wounds (Caddick & Smith, 2014; Lundberg, Bennett, & Smith, 2011; Rogers, Mallinson, & Peppers, 2014). Research indicates that participation in adaptive sports positively impacts participants’ self-esteem, self-concept and self-efficacy (Lundberg, Taniguchi, McCormick, & Tibbs, 2011). Participants perceptions of their quality of life increase as a result of participating in sports (Arslan, 2013; Lundberg, Bennett, & Smith, 2011; Yazicioglu, Yavuz, Goktepe, & Tan, 2012). Surfing is one of many sports that has been adapted so that individuals with challenges can participate.


Arslan, S. (2012). Psychological results of recreative participation for disabled people and its effects
on perception of quality of life. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(6), 23-26. doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-6/b.4

Brault, M. W. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010. US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.

Caddick, N., & Smith, B. (2014). The impact of sport and physical activity on the well-being of combat veterans: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 9-18. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.011

Lundberg, N., Bennett, J., & Smith, S. (2011). Outcomes of adaptive sports and recreation participation among veterans returning from combat with acquired disability. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 45(2), 105-120.

Lundberg, N. R., Taniguchi, S., McCormick, B. P., & Tibbs, C. (2011). Identity negotiating: redefining stigmatized identities through adaptive sports and recreation participation among individuals with a disability. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(2), 205-225.

Martin, J. J. (2013). Benefits and barriers to physical activity for individuals with disabilities: a social-relational model of disability perspective. Disability & Rehabilitation, 35(24), 2030-2037. doi:10.3109/09638288.2013.802377

Rogers, C. M., Mallinson, T., & Peppers, D. (2014). High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: Feasibility study of Ocean Therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(4), 395-404. doi10.5014/ajot.2014.011221

Yazicioglu, K., Yavuz, F., Goktepe, A. S., & Tan, A. K. (2012). Influence of adapted sports on quality of life and life satisfaction in sport participants and non-sport participants with physical disabilities. Disability and health journal, 5(4), 249-253.

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