International Negotiations.

1- How do the actors in a negotiation agree on what is a concession?

2- Why might one side wish to deny that the other side’s professed concession is actually a concession?

3- How does the side making the professed concession prove that it is indeed a concession?
4- What defines agreement or harmony among one team of negotiations? (a negotiating party contains a representatives from both the departments of state and defense and both have different agency objectives but one country objective)

5- How do you evaluate the course the talks are taking in terms of objectives?
If not, what can you do to change the situation?

Theories, games, and bargaining models:
From game theory to social psychology to economics, various disciplines have been employed to understand the negotiation process. We will survey these various approaches and discuss the traditional bargaining model.

Hopmann, Chapters 4-6 (pp. 37-96).*
James K. Sebenius, “International Negotiation Analysis,” in Kremenyuk (pp. 229-255)*
Case Study: Cuban Missile Crisis. (example for game theory)

Lesson 2: Power and power asymmetry:
Habeeb, Chapter 2 (10-26).*

Hopmann, Chapter 7 (pp. 99-119).*
Case study: Panama Canal Negotiations. (example for power asymmetry)

Other Sources:
The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy has published a large number of negotiation and diplomatic case studies ( that are available in reasonably-priced (under $5) PDF format.

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