Instructions for assignment

Instructions for assignment
At the end of the semester, students will synthesize and summarize the materials collected to write a 4-5 page final research report that answers the following topics/questions:
1. Write a summary of your policy issue that includes the policy or policy issue. (5pts)
2. How are stakeholders affected by this issue? In other words, what populations or other entities are affected by or contributing to this issue and how are they affected? How may this issue be affecting populations specific to Florida? (15pts)
3. What are different political perspectives about this issue? For instance, how would liberals (Democrats) and conservatives (Republicans) view this issue differently? (15pts)
4. What has research found about this issue? Describe specific research studies and their findings about this topic. (30pts)
5. Based on news reports and research findings about this issue, what changes should be made to existing policy or what new policy should be created in order to make improvements to current conditions? What should policymakers specifically do about this issue? Note that simply stating that policymakers “should be aware” of an issue is not a sufficient response. (35pts)

You do not have to write a single essay for this assignment – answering the five questions separately is fine. The policy research report will be turned in the assignment drop box. Under normal circumstances, assignments will be graded and returned within one week. To receive full credit for each questions, you must:
• Answer all of the questions completely.
• Provide original thoughts and arguments that are clear and make sense.
• Provide factual information that is correct.
• Provide responses that reflect information from the course lectures and readings.
• Research outside of the article, course readings and content are not required, but any additional information that is used must be cited using APA style. This means that you must include in-test citations and a reference page that is properly formatted according to APA guidelines.
Education my topic for the policy report.
Below are the articles and the research peer review that I want you to use for my policy research report. Those articles I already discussed in my class. Based on this researches my policy research paper needs to be done.

Newspaper article #1

Is College Tuition Really Too High? By Adam Davidson Sept 8, 2015

This article refers to the increment on college tuitions and private universities. The authors compare cost of tuitions between 1974 and 2015. Also, it makes reference to the household median income. In other words, since 1974 the increasing cost of life to 2015 has been exceeding ridiculously. What about those who are not earning enough money and live on poverty level? Those people live on painful situation and for them higher education is unreachable. Today, higher education is a painful bill not only for median families but also for those people whose are not in a good economic situation. According to the article, tuition in private universities is now three times as expensive as it was in 1974, costing average $ 31.000 a year. Moreover, public tuitions is increasing four times now as it was on 1974, an average of $9.000 per year. Consequently, for low income population which is the majority a higher education is out of reach. For these reasons, government wants to increase funds to address that issue. However, solving this crisis now with the political issues is difficult. Trump claimed that he will cut education funds “way, way down.” President Obama wants to supply more funds to the department but as everyone knows takes process of approval. Similarly, Hillary Clinton offers in her campaign increase education department funds. Finally, the debating process will take a while and certainly without agreements. The truth is that people are struggling financially in order to afford a higher education. I am a vivid example of those who cannot afford school nor do I qualify for financial aid. According to government “I max out” my federal grant. It took me a while to finish my 2 years college. Obviously, for immigrants a second language is a process to go through. As a result, people maximize the federal grant and less money left for college. I have been playing with credit cards in order to pay for college. Now, I asked for a loan and I have been very careful in managing that money, which is only used for paying my classes. My goal is common like the others students not matter what I just want it to fulfill my dream graduating from FIU as a Social worker. But the reality is that I have a child who is 14 years old and as a parent it is my priority to make his educational dream comes true. That is probably the situation of many parents who cannot afford a higher education. They have to let go of their dreams in order to have their children education. I encourage you to read that article, many people can be identified with it. We should advocate as a social workers because as Nelson Mandela said: “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”
Davidson, A. (2015, September 8). Is College Tuition Really Too High? New York Times.
Newspaper # 2
Take Out More Students Loans. By Lauren Camera Sep 29, 2015.
The article shows a research made from Perdue University and Gallup about black students who recently graduated with more than $25,000 in student loans. The finding was made through a survey to students of college graduates and their satisfaction. As a result, of the survey there are concerns about the effects on those who were in a higher education but coming from less- privileged backgrounds.
Moreover, among those recent graduates who received their degrees between 2006 and 2015, 63 percent say they took out student loans for their undergraduate education, with the median reported amount at $30,000. Overall, 35 percent of recent graduates took out loans totaling more than $25,000, which the survey notes is the level at which debt burden appears to have a more serious impact on graduates’ lives. Importantly, though, that percentage rose to half for recent black alumni and to 42 percent among first-generation college students. However, the survey showed that Hispanic students are less like to incur in debt. Also, the survey look to the extent in which student loans debt forces them to delay major purchases such as: house, continuing education, open business, buying a new car. The survey was based on 30,000 students with bachelor’s degree or higher across the US. However, the students “strongly agree” that the cost of their education was worth.
On the other hand, other students who received their degrees between 2006 and 2015 are significantly less likely than all graduates overall to think their education was worth the cost, 50 percent compared to 38 percent – though that could be a result of both older alumni making more money and younger alumni making student loan payments. One factor that made it more likely that alumni would agree that the cost was worth the degree include if they were active in extracurricular activities, held a leadership position in a club or other organization, had a job or internship or worked on a project that took a semester of more to complete.
In brief, there are many articles in similarity that relates to issues in education. As you can see the most affected here were black population who’s graduated as the first ones in their families with a less privileged conditions.
Camera, L. (2015, September 29). Take Out More Students Loans. Retrieved October 4, 2015, from

Newspaper # 3
Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider.
By Eduardo Porter. Sep 22, 2015

The article refers the growth in on education from 1970 with school desegregation and the war on poverty that brought equality to the US. However, the editor emphasizes on racial disparities that disadvantage the African American population. Statistics showed on 2012 that blacks reduced their test- score by 50 % in math and reading compared what it was 30- 40 years before. Moreover, the author claimed that racial disparities still in American society but it is not a divider. The author compared the gap between a person with a college degree and the person whose only have a high school diploma. It shows that children with parents are college graduated are more than twice likely to go college. Children with parents who only completed high school are seven times likely to dropouts, the author mentioned only 5 % of Americans whose parents did not finish high school have a degree. In addition, refers to a new book edited named “Two Many Children left behind.” Furthermore, children from low-income SES tend to develop disadvantages such as obesity, low performer, more social and emotional problems as well as likely to report poor health. According to the article, programs serving poor and minority children is less attractive to teachers because children are more difficult to manage and catch up. Consequently, point policy prescription not only for improving teacher curriculum but also for parents in teaching them parenting skills, raising their pay and helping them with the demand of work and family. Finally, the gap between rich and poor is twice as large between black and white children. In brief, poor children are always affected in the society. Social disparity does not play a big role. As we can see the most affected are the ones who resources are less. Once again, advocacy plays an important role for social workers that are the voice for those who’s still in that inequality side.
Porter, E. (2015, September 22). Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider. New York Times.
Newspaper # 4

UFT, special education advocates call for better reading instructions.
By Linda Casio, December 14, 2015. New York time. Teacher Issue.

This article make reference about students with disabilities that needs to improve their low literacy. In order to help those students that their comprehension processing is late, the teachers advocate raising their voices at City Council hearing Oct 28, 2014. According to them, special reading programs needs to be develop for those children with disabilities. Teachers claim that on 2013-14 school year, only 6.7 % of students passed the English language art test. Moreover, evidence- based practice is been used to incorporate phonics, comprehension and fluency. Teachers claim that students with special education in classrooms is not in direct correlation with the number of students increasing in class each year. Those students need a direct attention. However, if the number of them in class exceeds, they cannot be benefited from the intervention. Students with special education are extremely affected with this issued. My policy is about Education in USA. We agree that the system needs to modify or implement programs in order to help those kids with learning disadvantages.

Ocasio, L. (2014, December 4). UFT, special ed advocates call for better reading instruction. New York Times.

Research peer review # 1
Social Work Education and Global Issues: Implications for Social Work practice

This article refers to social work education focusing on national problems instead of global problems. Although, social workers think globally has less interaction among international organizations. Social workers are to become not only more involved but also more effectively involved in international organizations and global issues, the international dimension of social work education must be strengthened. Educational programs for social workers around the world give only limited attention to social issues that extend beyond national boundaries. Most students have little if any exposure to international roles for social workers. Although there is some international content in the curricula of a sizable number of schools of social work, most of it is focused on cross-national policy and program comparisons rather than global issues and practice roles (Hokenstad & Kendall, 1995). For these reasons, education on social worker has to propose an international curriculum to prepare extensively to the social workers students in order to become more effective among international interventions. Diversity classes are taught for cultural understanding, but it is not enough to appreciate the great gap in the quality of human beings. It should be an internship program to develop globally skills in order to be successful as social workers practitioners with ethnic groups.
Beverly L, E. (2011). Social Work education and global issues: implications for social work prectice.Education, 131(3), 580-580. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from global issues&ix=kw&fl=ar&V=D&S=0101445702867426&I=3#top

Research # 2
Education in Black America: Is It the New Jim Crow?

This research talks about the quality of Education for African American in USA. It shows the education system’s inability to provide success to children. For example, children who face disciplinary actions or those who are involved in the juvenile justice system for delinquency or dependency proceeding. In addition, stated that those children cannot complete his/her curriculum because are frequently place from home to home especially the foster care children. On the other hand, children who are in juvenile detention have to receive their education there or sometimes worse in adult prisons. The African American are the population well-represented through this research. Consequently, the educational quality decreased dramatically. Another finding was the legal contribution of criminalization on black children due to welfare programs, disciplinary proceeding, and the juvenile justice system. This population is most likely to be placed in a foster care and face disciplinary actions in school. It was concerned of the obstacles on the black population in order to be productive in their society and limits youth generation the potential for them to reach success.
Marrus, E. (2015). Education in Black America: Is It the New Jim Crow? Arkansas Law Review (1968-Present), 68(1), 27-54.

Research # 3
Effect of Educational Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening in Hispanic Women

This research focused on approaching Hispanic women in Boston area in order to reduce and understand factors that affect cervical cancer prevention, screening and care provided. The methods used in the research were providing educational material to each participant. For example pamphlets mailed to participants, radio segment focusing on cervical cancer awareness in English and Spanish stations, and monthly education session at the Hispanic community center in the Boston area. The four main areas focused were: attitudes toward cancer, healthcare utilization services, HPV awareness and HPV vaccination information and practices. As a consequence, researchers find that were an increase the knowledge about the acceptance of HPV vaccinations. Moreover, the educational intervention increased the HPV risk and knowledge among respondents. Also, shows the personal and cultural barriers among the population studied related with HPV knowledge. Finally, the research identified that this group of women represents a target population for which HPV educational programs was designed at a cultural and educational level to assess this community. In brief, the education can be a good source to implement cultural understanding and eliminate prejudice that certain ethnic group present. At the same time can be useful a powerful tool to implement levels of prevention in healthcare system.

Foley, O. (2015). Effect of Educational Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening in Hispanic Women. Journal Community of Health, 40(6), 1178-1184. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
Research # 4: This article is the best to use besides others because talks about laws, policy and parties (republicans and democrats)
The Era of Meanness: Welfare Reform and Barriers to a College Degree.
By Lynne A. Weikart
In response to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and the accompanying block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, broad-based advocacy coalitions formed in many states to lobby for meaningful college programs for welfare recipients. State by state, these coalitions wrestled with creating programs that would allow welfare recipients to remain in 4-year colleges, but only a few states managed to develop such programs. This article compares the advocacy coalitions in two states, Maine and New York, where welfare advocates struggled to achieve progressive state welfare higher educational policies and, in some instances, succeeded in keeping welfare recipients in 4- year colleges.
Keywords: higher education; policy implementation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; welfare reform.
Summary of article
This article refers to the law passed by Bill Clinton and the US congress in 1996 the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and the accompanying block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which was the most dramatic restructuring of federal aid to mothers and children since its beginnings in the Great Depression of 1929. The law limited the welfare to the total of 5 years over and individual’s lifetime. The TANF law only allows 1 year of postsecondary education and vocational education is accepted under the statute. However, few states signed for it because they were pressure to fulfill work-requirement quotas that it became difficult for them to offer 4 years of higher education to their welfare recipient. The ideology “emphasized the rapid entry to labor force and penalized states that allow long-term access for education and training.” (Adair, 2003, p. 248).
Nonetheless, wealth of evidence research found that people with a higher educational level, such as Bachelor degrees have better improve to financial opportunities and enhance their quality of life. For this reason, welfare recipients benefit significantly from higher education. A 1990 Ford Foundation study showed that welfare recipients who completed a 2- or 4-year college degree earned significantly more than did other former welfare recipients (Boggs, 2001). As a result, another study of 253 welfare recipients who graduated from college in 1995 and 1996 found that 17 months after graduation, 88% of the students were off welfare and that their median wage was $11 an hour. Apparently, a higher education is essentially to reduce the welfare dependency.
However, states did not develop programs to manage the 4 years college because the of the TANF requirements needed by states to get welfare. Because of this policy college drop outs increase especially for women to 29% to 82 %. Only 19 states develop strategies for his/her welfare recipient. For example, Oklahoma and the District of Columbia allow post- secondary education. Others such as Massachusetts and North Carolina permitted only 3 years, South Carolina permitted only 30 months, and Wisconsin permitted welfare recipients to attend only technical colleges. Only 15 states of the 19 states allows recipients to attend 4 years college.
In brief, it is important the implementation of new policies in order to obtain better results for people affected by this law. The importance for the rest of the states to recognize that education is a solid base for individuals to improve and economic stability in society and be independent of the welfare system.
Academic ability is essential for meaningful participation in our society. We need to invest in intellectual ability. We as a society are in the human development business. —E. Gordon, 2002
Weikart, L. (2005). The era of meanness: welfare reform and barriers to a college degree. AFFILIA: Journal Of Women And Social Work, 20(4), 416-433.

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