Institutions, Inequality, and Incomes: Ghana and Ivory Coast
In this assignment you are required to read the CASE STUDY 5: “Institutions, Inequality, and Incomes: Ghana and Ivory Coast” from page 264-270 of your textbook “Todaro, M. and S. Smith, Economic Development, 12th ed., Prentice Hall, 2014”. Your written answer should not be more than 600 words. Please refer to the “Assignment Instruction” for details.
Make sure you cover what you think are the major points (part of this exercise is identifying those), focusing on the economic intuition and outcomes related to the reported facts. Then apply proper research and analysis to generate an opinion based on some facts to get points according to the grade rubric printed on “Assignment Instruction”. Analysis should cover the materials taught in class and outside facts. Research should cover enough secondary or primary sources as long as those are properly referenced according to the style guidelines as outlined in “Assignment Instruction”.
The main objective of writing short papers on these Economic Development related topics is giving you the opportunity to:
• Apply the analytical skills and intuition obtained in the class to examine a burning development topic/issue ?
• Induce critical thinking on your part, which involves integrating what you are learning and real-world development issues ?
• Learn how to write a formal paper, to be read by policymakers and other readers ?Instructions ?You will be writing exactly 5 papers in this course each worth exactly 8% of your final grade. This is an individual work and everyone should write and submit their own assignment. Please write your name, student ID and tutorial section number on your answer. To facilitate grading and minimize possible confusion due to unclear handwriting, please type your answers. ?The word limit for each paper is 600 words. ?Your work must clearly state the question/problem you are trying to explain/solve and the methods in which you plan to do this. Also note that mere reporting of fact or opinion is not enough, there must be some analytical/critical aspect in your paper, in which you give your own views and then validate them using logical and analytical tools. Note the use of introduction and conclusion, the use of side headings, and the general format and flow of ideas. ?You need to submit a hard copy in respective tutorials during the week when it’s due. You also need to upload the softcopy to canvas so that we can check for plagiarism. ?Plagiarism ?This involves passing off anyone else’s work as your own, and includes copying a whole paper or parts of it and claiming it as your own work. If you use any other person’s work, words, or ideas, you must cite and acknowledge the sources. Note that professors and instructors now have tools that allow checking if any student paper, essay, or research paper has been copied or paraphrased from the internet. You may run your paper via some online plagiarism checker (there are some of them who check it for free) before you submit to make sure that your paper is plagiarism free. ?
Criterion of a Successful Paper
• Does the paper provide an answer based on economic theory or economic principle? ?
• Has enough analysis been provided? ?
• Is it written in a clear, concise and grammatically correct style? ?
• Are spelling and word usage correct? ?
• What type of references and sources were used? ?
• Has the student incorporated the topics/tools used in class? ?
This style guideline should serve as a quick reference for your assignment. You may also use it for future classes unless the professors provide you with their own guidelines. A more comprehensive style guideline is Chicago Manual of Style. American Psychological Association Publication (APA) Manual is an alternative. You can use either of these guidelines, as long as you use them consistently.
• General: Assignment must be typed in 12-point Times New Roman (or equivalent) font, with at least 2.25cm margins on all sides and double-spaced. Pages (other than the title page), tables, figures, sections and footnotes must be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. ?
• Footnotes: Keep the use of footnotes to a minimum. Do not use footnotes for citations. Only use it for additional justifications. ?
• Referencing: You must provide correct attribution of all sources from which you have obtained facts and opinions. ?
• Quotations: Quotations must correspond exactly with the original in wording, spelling, and punctuation. Page numbers must be given. Changes must be indicated: use brackets to identify insertions; use dots (…) to show omissions. Also indicate where emphasis has been added. Only quotations of over 50 words should be separated from the text; these should also be indented at beginning margin and double-spaced with page number to be shown in brackets. ?
• Equations: Displayed equations should be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript as (1), (2) etc., near the right-hand margin of the page, and punctuated the same as the text. Capitalize the words Table, Figure, Section when they are used in the text to refer to a specific table, figure, or section. ?
• Citations: References mentioned in the text (i.e., citations) should refer to the author’s name (without initials) and year of publication. If the citation is a direct part of the sentence use the author’s last name followed by the publication date in parentheses. For example: More recently, Calomiris and Mason (2000) examine the question whether fundamentals can explain the survival time of banks during the great depression. If the citation is included in parentheses in the sentence then separate the author’s name and the date with a comma and separate the citations with semi colons. For example: Along the lines of the first approach, a number of papers have tested for autocorrelation in bank failures, controlling for macroeconomic conditions (Grossman, 1993; Hasan and Dwyer, 1994). ?
• The Reference section: There must be a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years cited in the text and those on the reference list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text (after any appendices). It should be listed in alphabetical order by author’s name. Do not number the citations. Examples of references format for different types of publications: ?For periodicals: Beine, M., Laurent, S., Lecourt, C., 2003. Offcial central bank interventions and exchange rate volatility. European Economic Review 47, 891-911. ?For monographs: Edwards, S., 1989. Exchange Rates, Devaluation, and Adjustment: ?
Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
For contributions to collective works: Freebairn, J., 1990. Is the Dollar a commodity currency. In: Clements, K., Freebairn, J. (Eds.), Exchange Rates and Australian Commodity Exports. Centre for Policy Studies, Monash University, and Economic Research Centre, The University of Western Australia, Melbourne and Perth, pp. 6-30.
For working paper in numbered series: Bayoumi, T., 1989. Saving-investment correlations: immobile capital, government policy or endogenous behavior? IMF Working Paper no. 89/66. Washington, DC.
Chinese names may be listed in the references with the surname first, as follows:?Liu Y.H., Chew S.B., and Li W.Z., 1998. Education, experience and productivity of labor in China’s township and village enterprises: The case of Jiangsu province. China Economic Review 9, 47-58.
Citing and listing of Web references: If there is an assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include it even if it is a PDF file. Otherwise, include the URL of the journal website, even if you accessed the article through a database.
Tables: Here is an excellent quote from the Chicago Manual of Style on the “virtues of tables”:
A table offers an excellent means of presenting a large number of individual, similar facts so that they are easy to scan and compare. A simple table can give information that would require several paragraphs to present textually, and it can do so more clearly.?…….A table should be as simple as the material allows and understandable on its own; even a reader unfamiliar with the material presented should be able to make general sense of a table. The text may highlight the main points in a table and summarize its message but should not duplicate the details.
Figures: Figures can have similar virtues as tables, as long as you use them judiciously and follow the same principles: clarity, ease of understanding, and appropriate labeling. Do not use a background color in your graphs. Avoid using cluttered graphs. Distinguish separate series by different symbols or line styles, and not only by line colors. (Remember most publishing and printing are still in black and white.)
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