Heart and Blood Vessels


Please answer the following questions in a Q&A format

Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions.

1. How does a condition like heart failure (congestive heart failure) influence cardiac output?
2. Why is hypertension (high blood pressure) sometimes called the ‘silent killer’? What are some of the complications of hypertension, specifically to the blood vessels?
3. What do the Lub and Dub sounds of the heart represent specifically. How do they relate to the cardiac cycle? When is a heart murmur heard within the cardiac cycle?
4. How does vasoconstriction and vasodilation of an artery influence cardiac output and blood pressure? What specific portion (section) of the nervous system controls the mechanisms of vasoconstriction and vasodilation within the arteries?
5. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the three types of blood vessels?
6. Describe how cardiac output and blood pressure relate to the cardiac cycle? Can you have an increase of blood pressure and not an increase in cardiac output? Why or why not?
7. In your own words describe the term angiogenesis. How is angiogenesis important to the human to the human body? How does it relate to tumors and cancer?
8. Individuals that have coronary artery disease (CAD), specifically arteriosclerosis will undergo angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft procedures. Compare and contrast these procedures.
9. In your own words, define the term ischemia. Describe ways that ischemia can occur in the body and the various complications that result because of it. How do the terms ischemia, thrombus and necrosis relate to one another?
1. What is the electrocardiogram (EKG)? How does the EKG relate to the cardiac cycle? In general, how can an EKG determine if an individual has had a myocardial infarction (heart attack)?


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