False memory – DRM paradigm
Title: Lost in translation: The effect of words emotionality on bilingual’s emotional expressiveness and memory accuracy
The main aim of this study will be to investigate false memory in bilinguals (Portuguese/English) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm by replicating and modifying a study conducted Knott, Mahmood & Howe (2013). Their research explored the influence of words emotionality in the development of bilingual’s false memory. Urdu-English bilinguals were presented with list o negative words. Knott et al’s. (2013) results showed that false memory was higher for the same language condition than opposite language condition. According to their findings the interpretation of the emotionality of words would be language dependent. However, Knott et al. used only negative list thus lacking a control. Furthermore it can be assumed that there may be substantial cultural differences making emotional word translations difficult. The current study will compare negative and neutral list using a European population in order to expand the research reliability and validity. The current research intends to investigate the lost in translation of words emotionality, therefore the list used will have association with negative feeling (depressed) rather than concrete words that have more of a emotional context (sick, surgery). This study will focus on associating the development of false memory with the loss of emotionality of the words when translated to the participant’s second language. In previous research, it became an important topic to validate eyewitness testimonials, however this is also important in the area of counselling and psychotherapy. As previous research has shown, there might be a loss of emotional association when words are retrieve in the second language (Sue & Sue, 1977). Therefore the misunderstanding of verbal and nonverbal communication may lead to false interpretation of emotions and behaviour. The fact that emotion information may be retrieved differently in the primary and secondary language may impact the accuracy of recall of negative events, which might affect the validity of a bilingual eyewitness interview, which it is also important when patients undergo counselling or therapeutic treatments. Both counsellor and client need to appropriately send and receive verbal message. This becomes a challenge among those that do not share the same language and cultural background (Sue & Sue, 1977; Aycicegi & Harris, 2004). Cultural variation in communication may lead to the wrong interpretation of the facts, the development of false memory and emotional blockage. For that reason, Language differences may act as impediment to counselling and the validity of eyewitness testimonial (Zoellner, Brigidi & Przeworski, 2000). Therefore, the current study aims to evaluate bilingual’s proficiency in their language and their emotional expressiveness.
– Design and methodology of the project
2x (DRM list: Negative words vs. Neutral words) 4x (Encoding & Retrieval Language: English vs. Portuguese, English vs. English, Portuguese vs. English & Portuguese vs. Portuguese) repeated measures
8 negative-emotional and 8 neutral lists were designed with 12 words in each list (Taken from Dewhurst, Anderson, & Knott, 2012). All lists were suitable for translation into Portuguese. Lists will be shown on computer screen, one word at the time. A recognition test will be use, which will consist of all critical lures, filler items and items taken from each list. The recognition sheet will have a total of 64 words.
Project writing Style
The report should be presented in the manner of a formal research report, such as is to be found in professional journals. There should, however, be rather more information on methods used and a fuller review of the literature. Statistics and tables which provide background material to that given in the main body of text should be included as appendices.
The following is the usual order of the elements in a dissertation:
A. TITLE PAGE
This should have a balanced appearance and consist of:
a) The title, which should be descriptive, yet reasonably concise.
b) The full name of the author
c) The qualification for which the dissertation is being submitted.
d) The name of the University.
e) The name of the Department.
f) The month and year of submission.
It is a courtesy to mention help given by anyone who has provided significant help or facilities for the research.
This is a summary of about 200-300 words, indicating the main points and conclusions in the order described in the report. It should mention the method used and results obtained and be in complete sentences (i.e. not in note form).
If you have used any abbreviations these should be explained where they are first used. If they are repeated through the text it is useful to provide a list at the beginning. Use abbreviations sparingly.
5. BODY OF TEXT
Although there cannot be any rigid rules for the layout of the text a common format is:
Introduction (reasons for carrying out research on this topic, definitions of main concepts, summary and discussion of relevant past work, outline of what you intend to do); theoretical framework; methodology (research, design, what (if anything) is to be measured, subjects, apparatus (if any), procedure); results and findings; discussions; conclusions (drawing main points together, suggestions for future work, etc.).
If you use a format such as this, the process of writing-up becomes less daunting and it is possible to see how things fit together. It also allows you to divide the writing-up into smaller, more manageable units.
Chapter headings should preferably be short, descriptive and to the point. Illustrations, tables, figures, etc. must be clearly labelled according to APA norms and should be related to the text.
D. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
These can be listed either separately or together and a few examples are appended.
References are those sources (written or unwritten) which were consulted during the course of the research and which are actually referred to.
Although this is optional, you can also include a bibliography. A bibliography contains the items which were found to be useful in formulating your ideas during the course of the project or else publications which expand or develop the ideas presented.
These should be clear and should contain, statistical tables that were not presented in the text but could be useful to refer too (not full SPSS outputs – those should be in the CDs you submit with your hard copies), instructions to participants, consent form, debriefing, and other items which cannot easily be fitted into the text. It is difficult to give a list that will fit every project so please use your common sense here. If you used a questionnaire, for example, it should probably be in an appendix, unless it is quite short. Remember you can put bulky material on the CD that accompanies your hard copies; however, for items your reader is likely to want to consult (i.e. the main questionnaire you used), it is better to print and append and include on your Moodle submission.
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The consecutive numbering of pages should start with the first page of text and should include any appendices and the bibliography. Numbers should be in Arabic and centred at the bottom of the page.
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If they are over four lines long, quotations from the works of other people should be single-spaced and indented five spaces. If you make any alterations to the original statement, enclose these within square brackets [ ]; if you omit anything, show this by using three dots (or four if it is at the end of a sentence). Capital letters, etc. should appear as in the original if you are copying something that has appeared in print elsewhere. If you wish to emphasise something that was not emphasised in the original (for instance, by underlining or through the use of italics), you should mention that you have done this: the usual way is to write ‘my emphasis’ or ’emphasis not in original’ in brackets after the quoted statement.
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APA (American Psychological Association) system
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