Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice
a) Application of the Major Works
You are to select 3 Major Works from the book, one from each section as followed: Section I: The Classic Descriptions of Crime
Section II: Theories of Causation of Crime
Section III: The Social Response to Crime
When selecting the three different Major Works aim at select three that relate or build off each other. For example if you select “What is a Gang” from Section I, you may select “The American Criminal” from Section II, then select “Broken Windows..” from Section III; from a practical standpoint they all relate. A gang member is stereotypically a known American crime, when considering history. Those crimes that relate to being a gang member or an American criminal can be further expounded upon by the Broken Windows theory. Broken Windows would explain how law enforcement created a specific method to combat crime; crime that possibly resulted from gang banging in certain communities. That example shows the continuum of steps within the larger criminal justice world.
The objective of this assignment is to interrelate the Major Works and show the continuum from describing crime, to making theories about crime, to making responses to criminal activity. As I mentioned, the textbook is organized in a specific manner that helps you select Major Works that correlate with each other. Use the formula above to help you select your Major Works.
b) Case Study of Application
After you have completed section A, you need to find a criminal case that fits perfectly into the continuum described above, based on the Major Works selected. The case needs to be completed/closed, not a case that is still open and in active litigation in a criminal court. I recommend selecting a landmark case/famous case, because more information and history about the convicted individual will be searchable; such as the family and social setting of that individual before the crime occurred, which can assist in applying the Major Works from Section I and II. If there is information readily available about that individual’s prison life, take that into consideration also when selecting your Major Works.
My three sections from the text book are, section 1: The cycle of violence by cathy spatz widom. section 2: criminal man by Gina Lombroso-Ferrero. Section 3: The challenge of crime in a free society by President’s commission on Law Enforcement and the administration of justice. The case for Part B is South Carolina v. Gathers. The book for the class is ” classics of criminology fourth edition Joesph E. Jacoby. The paper must be 75 % in my own words Apa formate. I also have sources already if that helps.
APA Format (double space, Time New Roman 12 point font, in-­-text citations, cover page, Works
cited/Reference page, page numbers etc… )
-­- 12 pages not including the Cover page, Works Cited/Reference Page
-­- Submit via SafeAssign as WORD.doc or .docx ONLY
-­- Minimum of 8 scholarly sources (WIKI is not a scholarly source)
Annotated Bibliography
Widom, C., & Jacoby, J (2012). Classics of Criminology. The Cycle of Violence, 14, 113-122.
The author presents a series of data including information of the violence between the categories of race, sex, age and other various categories. The author also shows numerous facts of violence through her “cycle of violence”. The findings of the author also show how people victimized by violence, or commit an act of violence have major changes in their lives.
Lombroso-Ferrero, G., & Jacoby, J (2012) Classics of Criminology. Criminal Man. 21, 183-198.
The author of this particular chapter indicates information about how a person may or may not become a criminal. The author shows how different categories can lead to becoming a criminal. Physical aspects, the sensory aspect, psychology aspects are all the aspects the author talks about through out the chapter. She also goes on to talk about how children can inherit the criminal instincts.
Jacoby, J. (2012). Classics of Criminology. The challenge of Crime In A Free Society. 49, 415-426.
The author of this chapter shows how crime is not so easy to come by in today’s society. He indicates that many Americans get comfortable of the view of crime that is portrayed in our society. He gives examples on how to prevent crime, also new ways of dealing with offenders.
South Carolina v. Gathers, 490 U.S. 805 (1989).
In this particular case. Demetrius Gathers and several accomplices had been walking through a park when they encountered the victim, Richard Hayes. Hayes Initially failed to respond to Gathers, so Gathers and his friends began to beat the unconscious Hayes. Gathers then stuck an umbrella into the victim Hayes anus. A short time after this Gathers returned to the scene and stabbed Hayes repeatedly, searching Hayes for valuable items to steal. Gathers was then convicted in general sessions court of Charleston County on the charges of murder and first-degree criminal sexual conduct. Gathers was then sentenced to death. Only to have his death sentence reversed.
South Carolina v. Gathers. (1989). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from.
This particular article on the case gives all the key information we need to help educate about South Carolina v. Gathers. Stating important facts about the case makes Cornell University creditable when it comes to gathering information. The article also gives the opinions of each Supreme Court judge that was on the case.
Greenhouse, L. (1989) Supreme Court Roundup; Justices Limit Evidence in Death Penalty Hearings. The New York Times, Retrieved from
This article shows how each Supreme Court judge gave various reasoning in overturning the Gathers case. Greenhouse also adds her own personal opinion to the other opinions. While doing this Greenhouse breaks down each and every Supreme Court judge opinion. Giving us a clearer aspect to how the case panned out.
Steinmann, R. (2011). Three-Strikes Laws. Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues. Retrieved from
This particular section of the book by Michael Shally shows the violations of the eight amendment. Since Gathers was found to be in violation of the eight amendment this section of Shally’s book fits the case well. The section talks about how the three strike laws are in violation of the eighth amendment because they show signs of cruel and unusual punishment. Shally indicates how inmates often appeal their sentence as grossly disproportionate in order to show signs of violation to their eight amendment.

Evans, K. (2014) Supreme Court Rulings I: Constutionality of the Death Penalty Guidelines for Judges and Juries, Jury Selection, and Sentencing Procedures. Information Plus Reference Series. Capital Punishment. Retrieved from
This article shows if the death penalty is actual constitutional. Gathers was sentenced to death, leading this source to show aspect to that side of his case. Evans also shows the numerous opinions by Supreme Court judges on the topic of the death penalty. The article shows key information that could of played a huge role in the South Carolina v. Gathers case in 1989.

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