Students must answer any two questions from this section (2000 words each essay)
20 marks per question
1. In what ways has the spread of Wahhabism impacted modern Muslim receptions of Sufism and secularism? Discuss with particular reference to the concepts of bid’a and shirk.
The expansion of Wahhabism is limiting the receptions of Sufism and secularism because the Wahhabis wants to go back to the original Islam as it was at the time of prophet and his companions which call the Salafi Islam, therefore they look to the Sufism as a kind bid’a because it was not exist during the time of the prophet also they look at the Sufism as shirk because the Worship graves as they seen and sanctify humans ( Their Imams). About the secularism Wahhabis believes it’s a kind of shirk because deny the God low and follow the humans wants while their believe is that the roll is only for god and by his religion.
2. Some Muslim attitudes towards pluralism and popular culture have been dismissed as embracing Western attitudes that are external to Islam. Is this a valid criticism? Why/Why not?
The answer here would be:
The pluralism always has been in the Quran and Hadith, and because even before Muslims countries interact with western attitudes the Muslims had their unique popular culture in music, fashion and architectural (the Islamic Architecture).

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